The researchers used standardized math skills assessments to evaluate achievement. They conducted these assessments one-on-one with each research participant.
I agree that children’s enjoyment of math is paramount. Research has shown that many young children start out enjoying math but, unfortunately, this enjoyment decreases over the course of elementary and high school. How do we keep students interested and engaged while at the same time telling them they are under-performing? As I mention in the article, I think instilling a growth mindset in children can help.