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The Hackers Congress is one of a kind event where great minds come together to discuss various topics and share the knowledge that they have gained with others. This years topic was “OPT-OUT”, and as such, I decided to put together a list of ways that people can opt-out of the existing system, whether it is through the use of cryptocurrencies, decentralized systems, or services that can help people move away from the traditional / legacy systems.

My name is Amin Rafiee. I attended the 6th Hackers Congress hosted by Paralelni Polis in the city of Prague.

“I am grateful to have been attending the Hackers Congress, hosted by Paralelni Polis, since 2015. Much has changed in those 5 years, though I am proud to say that the core values and vision have not shifted. It is the only place in the world operating purely on cryptocurrencies in its 6 years of operation. This is mostly due to the dedicated and well informed individuals who founded the concept, as well as all the people who keep on supporting and contributing to its growth, without sacrificing integrity. Paralelni Polis has become my home and the gold standard of cryptoanarchy and crypto-related events.” — ​A Review of the Hackers Congress in Prague, Decentralize.Today…


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This three-part article explores the feasibility of introducing cryptocurrencies and decentralized systems within emerging economies, such as Mexico.

The first segment examined Mexico’s financial sector and the unbanked. The second segment focused on biometric-based security systems that have been used by nation states in an attempt to expand access to financial services.

This final segment will discuss the limitations and benefits of cryptocurrencies and decentralized systems, while highlighting two case studies conducted within Mexico.

Introducing Decentralized Cryptocurrencies

Most of the world’s economies and monetary systems are managed by central banks (such as the Banco de México in Mexico). …


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In a previous article, I discussed Mexico’s economy and financial sector in the interest of the unbanked. This article will review biometric-based security systems and financial solutions with a focus on emerging markets, such as Mexico’s.

In a follow-up article, I will discuss a social experiment involving cryptocurrencies in the city of Oaxaca (Mexico), and a review to evaluate the possibility of implementing decentralized cryptocurrencies within emerging markets, based on my experience as a decentralization advocate, public speaker and entrepreneur.

The need to increase financial access has been met with the use of biometrics as a form of authentication and identification. In order to better understand the role of decentralized systems and cryptocurrencies, we must first call into question the integrity of centralized systems. …


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This is a three part article which will attempt to measure the possibility of implementing decentralized cryptocurrencies within Mexico.

The first part explores Mexico’s economy, financial systems as well as their popularity within the country. The second part will discuss the commonly used method of authentication — biometrics — from a personal security perspective. The third part will evaluate a social experiment involving cryptocurrencies within the city of Oaxaca in Mexico.

The Country of Need: Mexico

Mexico is a country where cash dominates, a place where more than half of the households don’t have a bank account. …


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Pseudo-anonymous decentralized cryptocurrencies and tokens like Bitcoin and Ether, offer new financial options that we didn’t have before. For example, the ability to publicly track a transaction and monitor its path from one wallet into another.

The Supreme Court of British Columbia examined a case where a company offering its own tokens during an Initial-Coin-Offering (ICO) mistakenly sent the wrong tokens to an investor. This case raises some questions. First, who is responsible for the mistake, and second, does the immutability of decentralized cryptocurrencies imply that the mistake is irreparable regardless of national or international laws?

CopyTrack vs Brian Wall

On September 12 (2018), CopyTrack (company and plaintiff) went to the Supreme Court of British Columbia (BC) to dispute their case again Brian Wall (investor and defendant). The record states that Wall participated in the ICO as an investor and purchased 530 CopyTrack (CPY) tokens. …


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The demand for greater transparency, accountability and equality between users and service providers has been met through the “sharing economy”. Decentralized cryptocurrencies, decentralized applications, and technological innovations such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, are also part of this movement. Can such innovations improve Uber and the ride-sharing industry?

To expand on this notion it would be wise to sample an industry. For our purpose we will examine the ride-sharing industry, which is currently monopolized by well known brands such Uber and the smaller Lyft.

What are the downfalls of centralized technologies and how can we improve on them using decentralized protocols, without intermediaries?


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There has been a wide regulatory movement from the east of the globe all the way to the west. Countries such as Japan, Bahrain and The Netherlands are seeking to introduce new licencing and regulatory requirements for cryptocurrency service providers.

G20 finance ministers and central bank governors stated in July 2018 that “crypto-assets lack the key attributes of sovereign currencies”. As mentioned by an article published in Bloomberg, the shift from using the term “cryptocurrencies” to “crypto-assets” was as a result of the G20 countries deciding that “cryptocurrencies aren’t money after all, but an asset”.

To follow up from the statement made by G20 leaders — a drive for better clarity and security of investors — Japan’s Financial Services Agency (FSA) has planned to label cryptocurrencies as “crypto-assets”. …


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In Part I of this story we discussed the “Token Taxonomy Act” which was introduced to exempt some crypto tokens from existing securities laws. In this article we will continue the story with another aspect of the bill, focusing on existing federal tax requirements for cryptocurrencies, which have caused a great deal of confusion in the US.

In 2014, the Internal Revenue Service of the US (IRS), announced that for “federal tax purposes, virtual currencies are treated as property” subject to capital gain or loss requirements. …


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Governments around the world — such as the US and Switzerland — are doing their best to regulate and define cryptocurrencies within their existing laws.

In this two part article we will go over a bill introduced to change the legal framework within the US. The first part will discuss the securities aspect and the latter will go over changes on a taxation level.

In the US, laws — enacted from 1933 and 1934, after the great depression — are being used to classify tokens and cryptocurrencies as securities. This is with the exception of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which due to their nature are not considered as a security. …


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Banking restrictions and lack of a regulatory framework within the crypto space have had a significant impact on the cryptosphere.

As reported by PWC, countries which used to be the top ICO hubs in 2017 — such as Switzerland, USA, China and Russia — have lost momentum to give way to other countries such like Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, UK, and Estonia.

Switzerland, the home of the popular “Crypto Valley” — which hosts over 600 blockchain startups — recently introduced a document outlining a proposed legal framework in the hope of regaining traction.

Swiss Banks Fear Decentralized Cryptocurrencies

Those who want to raise capital through the ICO model need the ability to store the funds raised— traditionally contributed in the form of Bitcoin or Ethereum — in a bank. …

About

Amin Rafiee

Advocate of decentralization, privacy, and bottom-up strategies. Consultant and Public Speaker. Specialized in product development & innovation pathways.

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