The Future of Work (I would like to see): the present-future!

Photo by Lukas on Unsplash

Welcome to the second part of our journey into the future of work, in the first part “The Future of Work (I would like to see): the past & the present ” we have examined what was the automation impact and the current innovations in the future of work, now we will see how the technology will allow these innovations.

Let’s start with some optimistic numbers: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported on January 30, 2018, that over the decade spanning from 2016 to 2026, the labor force would increase by 11.5 million, with an annual rate of about 0.7% per year, and, at the same time some industries will experience a significant increment in the turnover (from 18% to 30%).

As we examined before, there are new needs in the talent area, companies are looking for new technologies to improve the hiring processes overall efficiency and to find and retain the best talents, and soon they will have to face another incoming innovation wave.

At the same time, the world around us is rapidly changing: both from the social/organization point of view (like the digital nomadism, social structuring, remote work) and technological perspective. New online tools and communication environment are born every day, from virtual conference rooms to virtual offices, to a completely new class of virtual worlds.

AR/VR/MR technologies, AI, Blockchain, IoT … Everything is converging in a new dimension, where online-merge-offline (OMO) environments, so-called “Spatial Web”. And very soon, anyone will be part of that.

How can AI application be strategic to help companies more efficiently conduct talent sourcing and recruitment, retain and fostering? How are companies facing incoming innovation?

HR is your new HR: 5 examples of using Machine Learning in Human Resources — Medium

Some of the resources to fill in the list are from different sources: Emerj, Frankfurt Valley, Four AI HR Startups to watch in 2018, HR is your new HR: 5 examples of using Machine Learning in Human Resources, “Applied AI: AI use cases in HR”, “AI and Automation in HR: Impact, Adoption, and Future Workforce”, “#6things: Forget Code, GrubHub Snub, Ai Is Learning”, CB Insight research, and, finally, the amazing ecosystem representation of Talent Tech Labs.

AI is used in hiring, analytics and churns management in HR from “Applied AI: AI use cases in HR.”

Different articles offer various views on AI-HR relationship, and it is easy to understand how hard it is to design a fully comprehensive map of the HR innovation ecosystem.

Let us try to divide the various companies into categories based on the process efficiency the AI is improving, starting with the recruiting process.

Here our first map where we represented some of the companies using AI in the HR environment:

Talent assessment

In this category, some companies use AI to create a more comprehensive view of talents through self-assessment, tests, and other tools. One of these models is based on the Iceberg model of David McClelland to overcome the standard skill representation of a candidate and include additional key information like Drivers and Passions.
Other companies collect Passions as well, and other individual attributes/characteristics. AI is used to suggest possible connections between selected passions, skills, and other additional features. It is also applied to match these datasets with potential careers, opportunities or company functions.

From the Connecting Talents website

Connecting Talents gives users a unique opportunity to discover their talents and drivers with the purpose of taking more insightful decisions about their work. The service is based on an innovative approach that supports users’ decision-making process and points towards what engages them at work. The data is correlated with the features of business opportunities to create the best matching team for realizing the idea. Connecting Talents creates new profiling of the user’s talents, inspired by the McClelland Iceberg model, including Drivers, Passions, and Skills. The platform also has the ability to match a candidate with an opportunity based on a weighed fit-score calculated over the three elements.

Go Arya allows to “Discover the world’s best talent with the competitive edge of AI Recruiting. Match the right candidates with the right opportunities — quickly and objectively”. Pair skill sets with culture fit to capture the best balance of hard skills, soft skills, and culture alignment.

Hiring the talents

In this category AI is used to screen applications and resumes, to review and to identify top candidates. Most of these companies, moreover, use Chatbots and Virtual Assistants to engage talents during the hiring process, keep them informed on their applications and to join them further in case of additional information is needed, or new job positions are available.

Some of these companies use AI to harvest social networks to find additional information and to create a more comprehensive profile of the candidates, or to contact the candidates.

A Fit-Score, as a statistical distance between the posted job and the candidates, is presented in most of these companies that use different proprietary algorithms.

AVRIO: Avrio mission, from their website, is to utilize the power of Artificial Intelligence to unlock human potential to support talent professionals with tools that increase the time for human connection and to creating a transparent, efficient and simplified hiring experience for all.
Avrio uses AI with the ability to identify the best candidates for a determined job, based on automatic score, called FitScore while the Chatbot (RIO) can interview the candidate with questions, which are typically included in a phone screening. The Chatbot can suggest salary range using a combination of information including the range set by the employer and the candidate’s social media data. The assistant is also able to describe a typical day on the job to the candidate.

IDEAL is a Canadian startup founded in 2013. As reported on their website “Without sacrificing quality for speed, Ideal uses artificial intelligence to analyze rich candidate information such as resumes, chatbot conversations, assessments and performance data. Combining this knowledge with automation, Ideal slashes turnover reduces bias and dramatically improves quality of hire.” Ideal provides different products AI enabled like Automated Resume Screening, Chatbot and Candidate Messaging Software to eliminate phone screens and improve candidate experience, plus a service called “Uncover Your Existing Talent” able to re-screen users’ piles of resumes to find the best talent for clients’ new needs.
Ideal uses chatbots, virtual assistant and AI technologies to screen resumes and interview candidates with a 71% reduction costs per hire. Ideal reported, also, to be in the top 10 in Top Retail Employer Brand lists.

Glint uses AI tools to help companies save money and provide a better work experience. Machine learning tools help HR and management personnel hire new team members by tracking a candidate’s journey throughout the interview process and maintaining speed up the process of getting streamlined feedback to applicants. Plus, Glint helps HR to retain their employees through the full employee lifecycle. Linkedin acquired Glint on October 2018.

Paradox Olivia: Virtual assistants are increasingly common applications of Artificial Intelligence and often vary in their quality and ability to deliver results. Talent acquisition is no exception, and the AI company is attempting to bring value to users through its AI assistant called Olivia.
Olivia follows the general format of a chatbot (as depicted in the image below) and reportedly engages with potential candidates by handling tasks such as interview scheduling and responding to general inquiries regarding the company or position.

Peoplise is another solution for helping companies calculate a fit-score for new talent, combining such tools as digital screening and online interview results to help to hire managers to arrive at decisions. 
Peoplise also integrates a Career chatbot.

NimbleCat has a Talent Discovery service to help companies to finds high-value talent across the web, a fit-score (Talent Search) shortlisting the highest value candidates. Talent Analytics tells who is in user’s talent pool; guides outbound spend and measures the ROI of one’s efforts. Moreover, if recruiters are already running hard, Talent Direct enables to leverage its team of veteran recruiters to deliver high-value candidates directly to the client.

Additional examples for onboarding using Chatbots are Moon, AIDA from Cemex, and more will come soon in the next months.

Remote Interviews

One of the most time-consuming activities in the HR-recruiting area is the remote interview with the candidates. Each interview can consume from 30’ to 60’ minutes.

In this category, AI can manage remote interview through Chatbots and Virtual Assistants instead of having a remote interview like a phone conversation.

The plethora of chatbots technologies is very heterogeneous, from Facebook Messenger integration to Tensor Flow verticalization and proprietary technologies.

Inga., the recruitment company, provides its service using social media information using an intelligent application to give employers and recruiters an opportunity to find the best candidates.
Inga. breaks new ground in the recruiting for the clients. By specifically targeting the company finds interested professionals in social media on attractive job offers carefully before candidates go themselves in the search allowing the recruiting process to be more focused, faster and effective.

Mya Systems: Founded in 2012 under the company name FirstJob and now known as Mya Systems, the company launched its AI recruiter chatbot Mya in July 2016. Mya reportedly uses natural language processing and a deep-learning framework to analyze and process dialogue. According to the company’s website, Mya integrates directly into the user’s applicant tracking system and begins conversing with candidates after they apply for a job on the client’s website. For example, Mya reportedly screens candidates by asking follow-up questions to gain deeper insight on job experience such as determining if all required skills are met for a position.

Face-to-face Interviews

AI can support the employer during the face-to-face interview, pre-record interview or generically video interviews.

AI is used to analyze both speech information (Natural Language Processing, voice prosody, and connected emotions), facial expression, gaze tracking, and other body language and to collect additional feedback about the interview.
These AIs can record very microscopical modification in the employee facial expressions, and even lies or detect invisible stimuli.

HIREVUE presents Hiring Intelligence platform that combines video, AI and game-based challenges that are fast, simple, and keep candidates engaged throughout the hiring process. It can quickly identify the best candidates collecting data from game-based trials and showing the candidate’s work style, how they work with people, and general cognitive ability.

Since 2015, HireVue has used Artificial Intelligence to transform OnDemand video interviews into a robust, validated pre-hire assessment that reduces biases and augments talent decisions at scale.

HireVue OnDemand video interviews are asynchronous. Candidates record their responses to interview questions at the time they choose, on any device. In the same way, recruiters and hiring managers can review candidates’ interviews at any time.

The averagely recorded interview takes about 15–20 minutes long.

There are thousands of data points in just 15 minutes of recorded video. It is important to note that the average, multiple-choice assessment only provides 100 or so data points, corresponding to the number of questions.

The result is a highly valid, bias-mitigated assessment for specific job roles. The video interview medium combined with AI provides excellent insight into attributes like social intelligence (interpersonal skills), communication skills, personality traits, and overall job aptitude.

HireVue also introduces game-based assessments to leverage breakthroughs in artificial intelligence to deliver pre-hire assessments in a new, candidate-friendly delivery modality. To describe it simply, game-based assessments are a series of short psychometric games. Each game takes only a few minutes to complete, and different games give insight into a range of cognitive skills, including numeracy, problem-solving, and attention. Each of these skills is related to fluid IQ, or how well an individual processes completely new information. A complete game-based assessment typically involves a battery of different games and takes only 6–15 minutes to complete.

Retention Management

AI is able not only to select the best talents but to support them in their development and to collect feedback about their satisfaction in their job place. In this category, AI can manage short interviews with the employees, team, check the social network data to understand the level of satisfaction.

AI follows the employee’s development and can also suggest some team assessment actions.
 Another critical feature for the AI in this category is the ability to create a development plan for employees based on their wishes, marketing trends, and company needs. AI can suggest training courses and job role modifications.

Google’s People Analytics is about a data-driven approach to inform people practices, programs, and processes. Analytical techniques, ranging from reporting and metrics to predictive analytics to experimental research can help uncover new insights, solve people problems and direct HR actions. Google uses people analytics as a foundational building block that informs everything people do to find, grow and keep Googlers.

Workday, whose first application was launched in November 2006, represents a company building personalized training recommendations for employees based on a company’s needs, market trends, and employee specifics.

Passive Talents

In this last category, AI can find a talent that does not search for a job actively but who has a likelihood of changing jobs within the next months and target them. AI can collect data from social networks and to identify such employees and suggest new job positions based on their needs.

Entelo is the example of a talent sourcing software platform reportedly using AI to help companies discover quality candidates. The company claims its proprietary algorithm, More Likely to Move™, is capable of identifying individuals who have a 30 percent likelihood of changing jobs within the next 90 days.
To achieve this, Entelo has reportedly identified over 70 predictive variables which are used to analyze data from candidate profiles. Examples of variables include specific changes to a candidate’s social profile (such as updated skills on LinkedIn) and company health information from where the candidate currently works such as layoffs or stock fluctuations.

Engage Talent’s service is substantially parallel to competitor Entelo and uses Predictive Analytics to recommend quality passive candidates based on specifications determined by the client. The algorithm reportedly driving its recommendation engine, called Engage Me!, appears to be focused around five key metrics to help predict the likelihood a candidate will change job.

What’s next?

Is it possible to have an interview conducted by a robot to be hired?

Swedish recruitment agency TNG says “yes.” Their artificially intelligent robot Tengai (made by Furhat Robotics) serves as an interviewer with the goal of avoiding possible human biases in the process of recruitment.
According to a recent TNG survey, 73 percent of job seekers in Sweden believe they have been discriminated against during the job application process
Tengai is programmed to ask every question in the same order, and the same way as a human HR does but without considering gender and ethnicity of candidates or the way how they answer informal chit chat before the interview. After the interview, the robot provides a human HR with a transcript of the candidate’s answers for making a further decision about whether or not to move forward with that person. Tengai is claimed to be an AI eliminating discrimination in the process of hiring.

This is a small walkthrough over the AI application in the HR market, more companies are introducing AI in their hiring and fostering processes. This is only the beginning of the AI revolution in HR, more news is coming as the technology is getting mature.

This article was written with Aleksandra Sadovnikova help and support.