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During my final project at Holberton school, I and my partner Tu Vo decided to create an e-commerce web application using JavaScript only. The purpose of this project was to learn more about Javascript both in the front end and back end. I was mainly responsible for the back end part, while Tu did the front end. We spend roughly two weeks to write the application, but the actual planning started earlier, in the first week of October. We wanted to make our app fully functional e-commerce app with adaptability across all devices.

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As the world rapidly developing, one can hear terms such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence or Deep Learning. These terms have not emerged recently, in fact, shortly after building first computers scientists wanted to write instructions to computers without exact specific details, which was a dream at those times. Machine Learning can be key to making those dreams come true. But what is Machine learning? Here is the definition of Machine learning from the Wikipedia page:

Machine learning (ML) is the scientific study of algorithms and statistical models that computer systems use in order to perform a specific task effectively…

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In the Python programming language, there is no such thing as primitive data types as in C, instead, data stored inside objects. Many people prefer saying that everything in python is an object, be it integers, floats, or lists. But what does it mean? It means all of the “things” mentioned above have all the properties we usually associate with objects; types have member functions also known as methods, functions have attributes, modules can be passed as arguments, etc. And it has important implications with regards to how assignment in Python works. What we might think of as a variable…

OOP in Python3

Definition of attributes

In Object-oriented programming(OOP), classes and objects have attributes. Attributes are data stored inside a class or instance and represent the state or quality of the class or instance. In short, attributes store information about the instance. Also, attributes should not be confused with class functions also known as methods. One can think of attributes as noun or adjective, while methods are the verb of the class.

Class attributes

These attributes belong to the class itself, you can call them class variables. Example:

class NewClass:
attribute = "This is an attribute of a class"

In the above snippet, attributeis a class attribute…


Definition of libraries

In a modern world, many lines of code are written and that number grows exponentially. In order to manage several thousand or even millions of lines of code libraries are used. They help to pack related functions into one single file and keeps functions organized and easy to access. As a means of example, in C language there are a number of built-in libraries which are named according to their functionality, they are math.h, string.h, stdio.h and so on, it is obvious what they contain.

Types of libraries

In my previous post about Static Libraries, I gave a definition for the types of…

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Libraries in programming languages

Let’s start with the libraries in the programming languages. Nowadays, most programming languages have their built-in standard libraries. Why they use libraries? The answer is simple, libraries are just a collection of most frequently used functions aimed to write code faster, simpler and avoid “reinventing the wheel”. As an example, stdio.h header file contains functions related to input and output to the stdin, stdout or stderr, or math.h which has functions to make math calculations.

Types of libraries

Generally, there are two types of libraries in C, static and dynamic libraries. A static library (aka an archive) contains routines which are compiled and…


Software engineer student. I am passionate about AI and believe that it will change the world

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