TPO43 Reading 1 翻譯
By 陳惠鈞 Shelby Hui-Jun Chen
The Empire Of Alexander The Great
In 334 B.C. Alexander the Great took his Greek armies to the east and in only a few years completed his creation of an empire out of much of southwest Asia. In the new empire, barriers to trade and the movement of peoples were removed; markets were put in touch with one another. In the next generation thousands of Greek traders and artisans would enter this wider world to seek their fortunes. Alexander’s actions had several important consequences for the region occupied by the empire.
The first of these was the expansion of Greek civilization throughout the Middle East. Greek became the great international language. Towns and cities were established not only as garrisons (military posts) but as centers for the diffusion of Greek language, literature, and thought, particularly through libraries, as at Antioch (in modern Turkey) and the most famous of all, at Alexandria in Egypt, which would be the finest in the world for the next thousand years.
Second, this internationalism spelled the end of the classical Greek city-state — the unit of government in ancient Greece — and everything it stood for. Most city-states had been quite small in terms of citizenry, and this was considered to be a good thing. The focus of life was the agora, the open marketplace where assemblies could be held and where issues of the day, as well as more fundamental topics such as the purpose of government or the relationship between law and freedom, could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person.
The philosopher Plato (428–348 B.C.) felt that the ideal city-state should have about 5,000 citizens, because to the Greeks it was important that everyone in the community should know each other. In decision making, the whole body of citizens together would have the necessary knowledge in order generally to reach the right decision, even though the individual might not be particularly qualified to decide. The philosopher Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), who lived at a time when the city-state system was declining, believed that a political entity of 100,000 simply would not be able to govern itself. 
This implied that the city-state was based on the idea that citizens were not specialists but had multiple interests and talents — each a so-called jack-of-all-trades who could engage in many areas of life and politics. It implied a respect for the wholeness of life and a consequent dislike of specialization. It implied economic and military self-sufficiency. But with the development of trade and commerce in Alexander’s empire came the growth of cities; it was no longer possible to be a jack-of-all-trades. One now had to specialize, and with specialization came professionalism. There were getting to be too many persons to know, an easily observable community of interests was being replaced by a multiplicity of interests. The city-state was simply too “small-time”.
這代表城邦是建立在並非專才而是有多種興趣與才能的公民 — — 這種人叫做「jack-of-all-trades」，他們可以參與生活與政治中的很多領域。這代表著尊重生命的完整性以及不專精化，同時也達成了經濟和軍事上的自給自足。但是亞歷山大帝國在貿易與商業的發展上帶來了城市的擴張；jack-of-all-trades再也不可能了。現在一個人必須要專精，而且專精化將會變成專業化。有太多人需要認識，而可以簡單地觀察到社群的興趣被興趣的多樣性所取代。城邦制就只是太「小時」了。
Third, Greek philosophy was opened up to the philosophy and religion of the East. At the peak of the Greek city-state, religion played an important part. Its gods — such as Zeus, father of the gods, and his wife Hera — were thought of very much as being like human beings but with superhuman abilities. Their worship was linked to the rituals connected with one’s progress through life — birth, marriage, and death — and with invoking protection against danger, making prophecies, and promoting healing, rather than to any code of behavior. Nor was there much of a theory of afterlife.
第三個結果是希臘哲學和東方哲學與宗教相融合。在希臘城邦的鼎盛期，宗教扮演著很重要的角色。像是眾神之父宙斯，還有他的老婆赫拉等神明被想像成是很像人類，但是卻擁有超乎人類的能力。對神明的崇敬連結了生命中的各個事件 — — 出生、結婚﹐與死亡 — — 以及保護人們免於危險、做出預言、還有治療，而非規範人類行為。也沒有很多死後世界的理論。
Even before Alexander’s time, a life spent in the service of their city-state no longer seemed ideal to Greeks. The Athenian philosopher Socrates (470–399 B.C.) was the first person in Greece to propose a morality based on individual conscience rather than the demands of the state, and for this he was accused of not believing in the city’s gods and so corrupting the youth, and he was condemned to death. Greek philosophy — or even a focus on conscience — might complement religion but was no substitute for it, and this made Greeks receptive to the religious systems of the Middle East, even if they never adopted them completely. The combination of the religious instinct of Asia with the philosophic spirit of Greece spread across the world in the era after Alexander’s death, blending the culture of the Middle East with the culture of Greece.
即使在亞歷山大時代之前，對希臘人來說為他們的城邦貢獻生命也不再被視為理想。雅典哲學家蘇格拉底（西元前470–399年）是第一個建議道德應該要基於個人良知而非城邦需求，並且因此他被控訴不相信城市的神以及蠱惑青年而被判死刑。希臘哲學 — — 或專注於良知 — — 或許會與宗教互補，但是不會取而代之，而這會讓希臘人對中東的宗教系統接受力很強，即使不曾完全採用中東宗教。亞洲的宗教直觀與希臘的哲學精神融合了中東和希臘的文化，在亞歷山大死後的時代散播到世界各地。