Technical post-mortem of the August incident
Here is a reminder of the chronology:
- 19:00 UTC: a maintenance of the region started, only the git servers and
the UI were affected.
- 19:30 UTC: the sites went down.
- 23:30 UTC: the sites came back up, as well as the git servers and UI.
A little note: in local time, this was from 23:30PM to 3:30AM. The worst hours.
To explain the technical issues that led to such a long downtime, a
little background is necessary.
The region is based on several components (I’m only listing the
- The gateways, which are the entrypoints to all the applications
living in the region.
- The orchestration software, providing among others the list of
applications to the gateways.
- ZooKeeper servers (a quorum of 3), on which the orchestration
software relies for its state.
The maintenance window was only there to upgrade the orchestration
software. Currently, an upgrade of the orchestration software requires
a downtime of the git servers and the UI. (We’re working on removing
this dependency.) This explains the downtime between 19:00 UTC and
19:30 UTC of git and UI, while websites remained up.
At this point, the gateways could not get the new list of applications
being deployed, but the existing websites were fine, given that the
list was kept in the gateways’ memory. At 19:30 UTC, we restarted the
gateways to upgrade them as well, not realizing that the orchestration
software had not fully started.
This means that we emptied the gateways’ memory (since we restarted
them), and the gateways couldn’t fetch the list of applications, since
the orchestration software wasn’t available. Argh.
From then on, the websites were down, although the environments holding
the applications were still working fine. This explains why there was
no issue regarding data integrity — the websites were working fine,
it’s only the gateways that weren’t.
At this point, we realized that the orchestration software hadn’t
completely started. We started looking at the logs, and saw that the
software was randomly dropping connections to ZooKeeper. After a lot
of investigation, we found, thanks to strace, that the software was
getting a lot of EPIPE errors. This is when we realized that our
issue was in the Kazoo library we’re using to manage ZooKeeper
In the EU region, we currently have ~1 million nodes living in
ZooKeeper. The orchestration software, as part of its startup, creates
an ephemeral node below every node it’s supposed to own called
`&owner`, which is its way to acquire a global lock across
servers. The Kazoo library had a bug that made it drop the connection
when too many queries were sent at the same time.
Internally, Kazoo uses a pipe (pipe(2)) to synchronize state between
its threads. You have the client, adding items to a queue, and writing
a nul byte (\0) to the internal pipe, and the connection object, select()ing on
the internal pipe, and getting items from the queue to send them to
the ZooKeeper socket. In the connection object, you have this kind of
self._read_pipe, self._write_pipe = create_pipe()
# select() on the socket to zookeeper and the internal pipe
s = self.handler.select([self._socket, self._read_pipe],
, , timeout)
if s == self._socket:
# Read the socket
And in the client, you have this kind of code:
write_pipe = self._connection._write_pipe
raise ConnectionClosedError("Connection has been closed")
The problem that we had was when the pipe buffer became full
(64k). When this became the case, the os.write call was failing with
an EPIPE, closing the connection to ZooKeeper. Given that each item
in the pipe is 1 byte, it means there were 64k queries waiting to be
So we didn’t see the issue before because we didn’t have as many
objects, thus the pipe wasn’t used enough to fill up its buffer.
To solve this issue, we added a semaphore lock in the client. Now, the
client can write up to 1000 items to the pipe buffer before which it
will wait until a slot becomes free to add another one. We’re looking
if we can increase the semaphore count to 64k without issue, or at
least the current platform’s pipe size. (It’s configurable.) We’re
preparing a pull request for the Kazoo project. (By the way, we found
other issues in the kazoo project, and have already contributed
a pull request.)
After we deployed this fix to our production servers, at 23:15 UTC,
the random connection drops were gone. Now, we got consistent
connection drops. Ugh.
This time, quickly looking at ZooKeeper logs, we found that one node was over the max node size of ZooKeeper. We increased ZooKeeper max buffer size, restarted, and everything came back, at 23:30 UTC. Phew. Bed time, finally!
To sum up, there were several issues which led to such a long
1. We restarted the gateways without waiting for the orchestration
software to be fully started.
2. We had to debug and fix a scaling issue in kazoo, a popular open
3. We had too big nodes in ZooKeeper.
Solving the first issue is an automation problem. We have now
implemented automated checks when upgrading the orchestration software
to make sure it is fully started before we do anything else.
The second issue is not something we could have predicted. We’re going
to send a pull request upstream for this bug to not occur to anyone
The third issue was a monitoring problem. The nodes sizes weren’t
monitored, and this is now fixed. Whenever a node size goes up to 90%
of ZooKeeper’s max buffer size, an alert is sent to us, and we can
decide on what to do. (If it’s a runaway node, we can just delete it,
and fix our software to not have runaway nodes. If it’s a legitimate
one, we’ll have to increase the max buffer, and see if we can split up
the node in our software. For example, we added compression to the
ZooKeeper nodes a few weeks ago, greatly reducing the sizes of the
It has been said before, but it bears repeating: we’re sorry for the
long downtime. We try our best to avoid it as much as possible.