I made an NES emulator. Here’s what I learned about the original Nintendo.

I recently created my own NES emulator. I did it mostly for fun and to learn about how the NES worked. I learned some interesting things, so I wrote this article to share. There is a lot of documentation already out there, so this is just meant to highlight some interesting tidbits. Warning: this will be very technical!

My emulator can record animated GIFs. Here I am playing Donkey Kong.


The NES used the MOS 6502 (at 1.79 MHz) as its CPU. The 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed in 1975. (Forty years ago!) This chip was very popular — it was also used in the Atari 2600 & 800, Apple I & II, Commodore 64, VIC-20, BBC Micro and more. In fact, a revision of the 6502 (the 65C02) is still in production today.

Memory Map

The 6502 had a 16-bit address space, so it could reference up to 64 KB of memory. But, the NES had just 2 KB of RAM, at addresses $0000 to $0800. The rest of the address space was for accessing the PPU, the APU, the game cartridge, input devices, etc.


The PPU (Picture Processing Unit)

The PPU generated the video output for the NES. Unlike the CPU, the PPU chip was specially-built for the NES. The PPU ran at 3x the frequency of the CPU. Each cycle of the PPU output one pixel while rendering.

The NES color palette.

The APU (Audio Processing Unit)

The APU supported two square wave channels, a triangle wave channel, a noise channel and a delta modulation channel.

Balloon Fight


The address space reserved for the cartridge restricted games to 32KB of program memory and 8KB of character memory (pattern tables). This was pretty limiting, so people got creative and implemented mappers.

ROM Files

An .nes ROM file contains the program memory banks and character memory banks from the cartridge. It has a small header that specifies what mapper the game used and what video mirroring mode it used. It also specifies whether battery-backed RAM was present on the cartridge.


It’s been fun learning about the NES. I’m impressed with what people were able to accomplish with such constrained hardware. It makes me want to write an 8-bit style game now…

My favorite: Super Mario Bros. 3

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Always coding, mostly Python & Go. Computer graphics, 2D & 3D. Art, woodworking, gardening. Space exploration enthusiast. Always busy with side projects. ♥

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