Here’s everything you need to know to follow along
Monad Transformers for the working programmer
Gabriele Petronella
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This qualifies as one of the worst definitions of Functor/Monad, but for the purposes of this article it will work fine.

Functor is more formally defined in terms of operations (fmap) and laws (identity and composition).

Similarly, Monad is more formally defined in terms of operations (pure/map/flatMap or pure/map/join) and laws (left identity, right identity, associativity).

If you’re after a complete formal definition, you’ll find plenty of articles online, so I won’t digress further here.

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