Eye tracking metrics can be valuable tools for marketers and designers to explore key insight regarding user mindset and underlying behaviors that are hard to be detected leveraging conventional means.
According to a post by UX Research Articles, there are certain limitations that prevent researchers and UX designers from grasping mobile user insights accurately. However, since the article was published back in 2012, software engineering advancement has stepped forward to help marketing researcher obtaining mobile data in more sophisticated ways.
Mobile gaze data serves as an important agent to help researchers discover the correlation between haptic data and user attention/interests. The following metrics are commonly used and adopted by marketers who have been incorporating gaze data in their analytics for mobile UI research.
An important first step when choosing metrics is to decide which measures relate to the research questions of interest. Other key elements such as the approach to analysis and sample size requirements also need to be considered before data is collected. At Gazeify, we aim to provide a selection of most commonly used metrics that are adopted by marketers and UX/UI designers. Let’s take a look at these following examples that will help you to understand your user’s subconscious and do a better job in studying their behavior.
1. Gaze points
The most basic measurement of gaze metrics is by capturing users’ gaze points, which show towards certain elements of a stimulus the users eyes are looking at. At Gazeify, we capture these data using the front camera of any smart phone with a precision within 3–5 mm on screen. If an user’s eyes are focused on a particular spot or object for a short period like in the image displayed above, then this series of gaze point will constitute a fixation. Fixations usually underline user has paid more attention to this spot or object comparing to anything else in close proximity.
Heatmaps help to visualize general distribution of fixations and gaze point with highlighted fields of green, yellow and red colors. In general, the color on a heatmap becomes hotter (red) when user’s gaze points cluster around certain areas, which also indicates the more attention an user has for these areas.
The above example is a Gazeify Heatmap tracked and generated from a single respondent. In the dashboard, a live capture can be viewed to evaluate overall user attention and interests as they navigate through the page. In contrast, aggregated data from a full study of several participants can also be viewed. The stacked layers of heatmaps will provide a full scoop of attention spent on screen in a collective view.
3. Areas of Interest (AOI)
An area of interest intuitively measures the performance of certain areas on screen using three key metrics: TTFF, Time Spent and Ratio. These metrics compare the gaze point distributed to each of the the selected area.
For example, the following screen capture shows the search results of HostelWorld.com. The result page can be divided into different regions including destination & date, map, top results and pricing. By tracking the aforementioned metrics, UI designers will be able to understand where users may be more interest in looking at.
Time to first fixation (TTFF)
The time to the first fixation indicates the amount of time that it takes a respondent (or all respondents on average) to look at a specific AOI from stimulus onset.
TTFF can indicate both bottom-up stimulus-driven searches (e.g., a flashy company label) as well as top-down attention driven searches (e.g., when respondents actively decide to focus on certain elements or aspects on a website or picture). TTFF is a basic yet very valuable metric in eye tracking.
“Time spent” quantifies the amount of time that respondents have spent on an AOI. Time spent often indexes motivation and top-down attention since respondents have to blend out other stimuli in the visual periphery that could be equally interesting.
Long prevalence at a certain region clearly indicates a high level of interest, while shorter prevalence times indicate that other areas on screen or in the environment might be more interesting.
The ratio allows extracting information about how many of your respondents actually guided their gaze towards a specific AOI. In market research, it might be relevant to optimize an advertisement so that more people are “drawn” towards a specific region in a picture or ad.
A higher ratio might indicate that fixations and gaze points are driven rather by external aspects in the stimulus material (bottom-up), or that the target group is very consistent in looking towards a specific AOI while ignoring others.
4. Fixation sequences
A fixation sequence shows a combined result from fixation and sequence of the gaze visit on different area of a page. This sequence generated tells a compelling story of where would the user look at first, second, third. One major advantage of this metrics is that by showing order of sequences, web and mobile designers could have the access to all elements and stimuli on a page that could affect user behavior subliminally.
This list of eye tracking metrics are commonly adopted measures in the industry. As gaze data technology has increased its applications in various fields, it has become equally important in providing user behaviors and consumer insight to marketers while more and more e-Commerce leaders have realized its potential and started integrating gaze data on top of the current analysis methods to see the full picture on ‘why’ and ‘how’.
At Gazeify, our mission is to enable our customer to have easier access to user behavior and user mindset, with the freedom to select from a full range of easily accessible metrics anytime. We leverage artificial intelligence and machine learning methods to combine user eye gaze data, user haptic data, user feedback to produce insightful recommendations. With our software-only mobile eye-tracking technology and scalable metrics, customers can obtain more user sessions with lower cost, improve their user experience and drive user behavior outcomes in just a few simple steps. Start by signing up with Gazeify.
If you find the above content interesting and would like to know more about how eye tracking could help you improve UI/UX performance, simply contact with our team at firstname.lastname@example.org. Or visit www.gazeify.com for our detailed product information.
Credit to: iMotion on Metrics