If you’re following GEO Protocol here on Medium or other social media, you probably already know what the project is all about. If so, you’ll likely have seen articles such as this one, explaining what ‘hair on fire problem’ GEO Protocol solves.

But if you want a quicker and more intuitive overview, or want to share this knowledge with someone, you can check out a short 3.5-minute animated video titled What is GEO Protocol for?’

You can also get a slightly deeper insight into GEO Protocol Features by viewing this 4-min video animation:

There are already a couple…


In our previous article, we described the GEO node’s trustline-related database structure in detail. We encourage you to read it first, so can better understand the actual trustline operation mechanics described in this article. Alternatively, you can simply refer to that article while reading this one, when you see a reference to database tables and fields.

We will now consider the actual trustline operation processes, which include opening, setting, and closing a trustline, as well as changing it during the course of payment operations.

But before we start, we need to make a small but important remark. It might seem…


Blockchain scalability is a vital issue that affects further adoption of this revolutionary technology. There are different solutions to this problem, and in this article, we will consider two of them: sharding and off-chain. We will do so by referencing examples of several scalability projects: FLETA, Elrond and GEO Protocol.

The problem

The problem of blockchain scalability can be divided into several parts: data size, transaction speed, and cost.

Data size

New transactions in every block (especially a popular one, like Bitcoin or Ethereum) lead to constant block additions to the ledger. This, in turn, leads to a continued increase of legacy data that…


“Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence win championships.”

Michael Jordan, the greatest basketball player of all time, knew what he was talking about. So, the GEO Protocol team learns from the best.

Previously, we presented our Business Development leaders, and here we are gonna introduce you to our Product Managers.


As you probably already know, GEO Protocol is a great open-source protocol for the Internet of Value. It can enable various financial networks of different natures (like different blockchain ecosystems, as well as traditional finance networks) to interoperate seamlessly, thus forming a universal supernetwork where every value asset can be transferred and exchanged as easy as information is on the ordinary internet.

GEO’s open-source technology can also be used to build completely new solutions that will not only be efficient by themselves but also will be integrated into the global Internet of Value right out of the box.

This all…


After the GEO Protocol team organized the Layer 2 Meetup in New York this May during NY Blockchain Week, we realized that there was a need for the Layer 2 community to experience further development. We saw the need for bringing like-minded people together to share knowledge and ideas, as well as creating a workspace to accommodate that.

That’s why we came up with an initiative that we hope will start propelling the community in this direction. …


The entire modern economy, and not blockchain ecosystems alone, suffers from a problem of insufficient compatibility and lack of mutual interaction. But technological solutions addressing the issue already exist. These include projects such as Interledger and the GEO Protocol.

A market is primarily a place where the value is transferred and exchanged. The value itself can take various forms, sometimes quite diverse: it can be constituted by physical goods, services, fiat money, cryptocurrency, real estate, industrial assets, debentures, ownership rights (stocks, for example), and so on.

And precisely because of this heterogeneity it is very difficult to make a direct…


“Individual commitment to a group effort — that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work.”

We at GEO Protocol take these words of Vince Lombardi, the great American football player and coach, seriously. That’s why we are proud of our team as a whole, and of each member in particular.

Previously we told you about GEO Protocol’s founders. Now we will present to you our BizDev leaders.


GEO Protocol is pleased to announce that we published the first version of our White Paper. You can download it from our website, or just use this direct link here.

Currently, it consists of five parts:

  1. Introduction section: contains the protocol’s summary and brief market overview.
  2. GEO Protocol: components and participants section: this one gives an overview of the GEO ecosystem.
  3. Participant Incentivization section: concentrates on a high-level explanation of the GEO Protocol’s economic model.
  4. Use Cases section gives an idea of what services could be built using the GEO technology.
  5. Disclaimer and risk factors section: contains links to the…

In our previous article, we briefly introduced the basic concept of trustlines. Now we’re going to dive back into the subject for more details. But first things first — in this article, we will discuss GEO Protocol’s trustline database structure; and the following article will deal with the GEO trustline mechanics.

So, let’s get started!

Trustline DB Structure

As we’ve already discussed, all the information about a node’s connections and operations, as well as its current state, is only stored on that very node itself (locally, in an SQLite relational database).

Technically there is no separate trustline database, but a…

GEO Protocol

Creating a universal ecosystem for value transfer networks

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