Nuclear magnetic resonance — the fact that the atoms within molecules, and the molecules themselves — act like rotating atomic dipoles is now an accepted fact of physics. However, the major implication of that fact — the likelihood that gravitation is probably a natural result arising from the spinning spherical forcefield of nuclear magnetic resonance — is neither apparently known about nor widely accepted at present, nor does it appear that the relationship between each hydrogen molecule and the visible universe is properly calculated.
There appears to be a missing equation which perhaps should be added to the otherwise excellent work of the “realistic physicists”, to the work of Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Tesla, Einstein, Feynman and many others. Newton developed a theory of gravitational attraction which equations are mirrored in the electrostatic field equations. James Clerk Maxwell gave us the key equations which govern our understanding of electro-magnetics and electrodynamics. Tesla has stressed that space is energy. During the modern period Feynman and Hawking have regularly repeated that each particle within each atom in this universe is connected to every other, but in my view perhaps physicists may not have adequately calculated the universal inertial frame resulting from such statements. This brief note attempts to perform part of that calculation, and derives the inter-relationship between the value of the electro-gravitational constant and the electromagnetic constant.
2 Purpose To show that gravity is an inevitable consequence of nuclear magnetic resonance, by calculating the value of G (the Gravitational constant) from the value of e (the electromagnetic constant) by considering the Feynman vector forces acting upon the electron from the proton within the atom, and between the electron and all the other protons in the universe.
3 Background There may be three possibly mistaken major assumptions often made in the big bang theory of the universe. These are:
- (until recently) that there is no residual significant charge on the hydrogen atom, because the rotating electron completely snuffs out the positive charge of the proton
- that the universe does not spin, and
- that the observable “red shift” of light from distant stars, galaxies and galactic clusters is a real effect and is not due to electromagnetic interactions between emitted light and the universal electromagnetic framework of referential space.
There is perhaps a fourth unstated assumption, so basic that it is usually assumed at such a gut level that it is normally not mentioned — the idea that interstellar space is empty and is not flooded with the “ether” or the Tesla-asserted spinning electromagnetic forcefield.
I hae ma doots. I think each of these assumptions is not quite right, because
- each hydrogen atom is now accepted (because of the relatively recent rise of the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance) to be a spinning electro-magnetic dipole, the most miniature unit of nuclear magnetic resonance, like a tiny fantastically-rapidly-spinning magnet. Even in a two-atom universe it is possible to show that no possibility exists for the complete negation of the residual charge arising from nuclear magnetic resonance, because complete negation is not possible unless the two nuclei are co-incident, and they are not. Even if, in our mind-experiment world, we assume quantal tunnelling and place the electrons in the same clock positions of noon, three o’clock, six o’clock and nine o’clock in Feynman’s quantum theory framework, there still exists a ricocheting effect of the electromagnetic fields of each atom upon the other as they both produce miniscule rapidly rotating electromagnetic fields and each orbiting electron adopts the minimum-energy electromagnetic compromise with the background radiation force within which it operates.
- everything we know about in this universe usually has the property of spin. The fundamental particles, the electrons around the nucleus, the moons in their orbits, the planets around their suns, the stars around their galactic centre, and the galaxies around the assumed local centre of their galactic cluster group, perhaps even the galactic clusters around their clustered groupings, all spinning in the interaction of the electromagnetic fields with each. Of course these statements are not precise — for large objects orbiting a much larger, there is often an elliptical spin around a common “centre of gravity”, sweeping equal areas out in equal times in the way observed by Kepler and for hydrogen electrons there is a probability distribution about where the electron may be. Nonetheless It may be unreasonable to assume that the universe does not spin, because everything else does. Of course, the spin may occur in a unique “universal” way.
- a bit more is suggested about the observed “red shift” below, and
- finally, no perfect vacuum exists anywhere in this universe. Nature doesn’t just abhor a vacuum, it does not permit one to exist anywhere. Interstellar space has perhaps about one hydrogen molecule per cubic centimetre — not a lot compared with the 2.096 times 10^22 molecules/cc at Earth’s atmosphere at sea level — but interstellar space is not empty, it is only comparatively empty. Intergalactic space is certainly much more empty, but even if if had only one hydrogen molecule every cubic light year, that would still not constitute a complete vacuum. The speed of light in a near-vacuum is all we can probably know about, because there is no location of a perfect vacuum anywhere, and consequently the electromagnetic waves surrounding and connecting matter with all other matter are everywhere.
The purpose of this note is to propose that gravitation results from the interaction of each electron (within each atom and each molecule) with every other proton (within each atom and each molecule) in the observable universe and to suggest the similar attraction of every proton in the universe for every electron. The value of the external electromagnetic constant is accurately derived as equal to the electromagnetic constant times 10^-40. A short mathematical proof of this principle will be presented and a couple of the implications of that result will be briefly suggested.
5.1 The Geometric Nature of Reality I am just about to use Tesla’s observations about the etheric nature of the universe along with Feynman’s vector math maybe to prove something about the inter-relationship of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces and I think a brief detour into the geometry of spheres might not be out of place. There is an interesting series of relationships about the characteristics of spheres, circles and vector forces arising from the natural geometry of these shapes. These matters are important because of their implications relating to the inverse square laws of geometric dispersal of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces which I think are probably one force, and I propose partly to prove that from the natural geometry of space and the comparison between the approximate radius of the hydrogen atom compared with the radius of the observable universe.
The volume of a sphere is (4-pi-r^3)/3 or four-thirds times pi times the radius of the sphere cubed. To calculate the surface area of a sphere you can use the calculus and an easy dr/dy gives you 4 times pi times r^2 or the surface of a sphere is four pi times the radius of the sphere squared.
5.2 Implications The implications of these observations are interesting. The approximate marginal rate of change of the volume of a sphere is equal to its quantal math surface area. The rules of gravitation and the electromagnetic force are the geometric rules for the dispersal of energy in a four dimensional universe. Because the surface area of a sphere is equal to four times the area of its largest cross-section (of pi times r^2 or pi r squared) interesting three dimensional analogies can be used to explain how inverse square forces vary at a distance. Einstein, for example, uses that similarity to illustrate the concept of gravity by showing a gravity well. Gravitational force is accurately mappable on to the well because the area of the surface of a dispersal sphere — four pi r^2 — maps accurately on to the disk of a circle — pi r squared. The inverse square laws of the dispersal of electromagnetic and gravitational forces are the natural result of the spherical dispersal of energy in this four-dimensional universe.
The integration of the inverse square laws with respect to the radius of action gives you the inverse radial calculation observation for the sum of vector forces, a function of a constant times one over r, or r to the power of minus 1. That too is very relevant, particularly with relation to the observations of Tesla.
If the rotating atomic dipole of atoms did not attract me another, molecules would not form. If the rotating nucleonic dipoles of molecules did not attract one another, chemical reactions would not occur. Both of these statements seem to be now generally accepted facts of physics and chemistry, although as usual the precise wordings of these principles may be arguable, and many people can become quite competent physicists and chemists without knowing these facts. But these electromagnetic reactions are only accepted to happen at the level of the very small, at the level of the atom and the molecule.
But consider the extension all such attractions to the world of the large gravitational effects.
I propose that gravitation is an inevitable result of nuclear magnetic resonance, because all the local molecules act to adopt a coherent shared similarity in their electromagnetic shell behaviour, and that this similarly rotating electromagnetic field is responsible for the attraction of all matter for other matter, for the effect we call gravity.
The only way spinning electromagnetic dipoles can attract another is through a similarity in their spin induced by the electromagnetic fields of each. Gravitation in this universe is a weak electromagnetic force consisting of the residual external effect of the adoption of partially in-phase electron orbits.
Furthermore, large spheres of hydrogen gas in interstellar space have an observed tendency to flatten into a disk of rotating gas, and that disk has a similar tendency to form within the disk a bar of stars which changes into a couple of spiral arms.
You can try the following mind or actual experiment: take two very strong bar-magnets, balanced on pins about their centre, and place them as near to one another as you can, then spin the first upon its axis. Another way to illustrate this principle is to place these bar magnets on a central bar, and spin the upper magnet. If they are close enough, the second may rotate, maybe by a turn or two. But suppose these bar-magnets were hydrogen atoms, and that the electromagnetic force was ten to the power of forty stronger than the kind of forces you can readily generate in a couple of bar magnets. Spinning the first magnetic dipole under these different conditions would cause the other to spin in as much electromagnetic harmony as it could muster. That is what happens with the hydrogen molecules which form 93% of the matter in this universe.
If we consider the hydrogen atom, and use Feynman’s vector maths, as well as Newton’s action=reaction law, then the condition for orbital stability of the electron would be
- The forces keeping the hydrogen atom together = the forces trying to tear it apart, or
- The internal electromagnetic force between the proton and the electron across the distance of the radius of the atom must equal the external forces trying to move the electron away from the proton, or
- The electromagnetic vector, acting along the radial line of force between the electron and the proton, must equal the electromagnetic vector of the line of force of the gravitational constant between the electron and all the other protons in the universe, with the vector force of that gravitational constant being given by the distance from the atom to radius of the observable universe, or
Where G = the gravitational constant
e = the electromagnetic constant
r = the radius of the average hydrogen atom and
W = the radius of the observable universe
Re-arranging this formula gives us the George-Edwards~Russell-Wright equivalence equation or
G/e = r/W = 1/10^40
In other words, the relative strength of the force of gravitation to the electromagnetic force is given by the ratio of the radius of the electron to the radius of the observable universe. This result is confirmed both by this calculation and by the best available estimates of these numbers. The values of g, e and r are easily looked up on the internet. W is the ratio of the speed of light to Hubble’s constant, the distance at which remote objects cannot affect local occurrences because all the objects beyond that distance are apparently accelerating away from us at the speed of light. Or it is the distance at which the interaction between the universal spin field has destroyed the light from distant stars and from other astronomical objects.
As James Clerk Maxwell proposed, light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. Light usually deteriorates in energy (that is, its wavelength lengthens) when it passes through glass and given that space itself (or what Tesla called the ether) may be a weak spinning electromagnetic force, it seems logical to assume that the wavelength of light may lengthen when it passes through the rotating ether of very slightly electro-magnetised space. And all space in this universe is slightly electro-magnetised by the web of forces between every proton and every electron in every particle in the observable universe, all 10^80 of them.
It seems that the interaction of the magnetic moments of all matter creates a weak but enormously significant inertial frame, a basal electromagnetic ocean which grooms every atom into resonating in accordance with the same three-dimensional electromagnetic spinfield. That basal electromagnetic field is the ocean upon which the waves of light, coming from every direction, ride through the universe, reducing their wavelength as the gravitational-electromagnetic field slightly resists their passage. And the residual electromagnetic force we have called gravity is especially coherent, it interacts with local matter to produce a rotating inwards-directing force in a way that simple magnets do not. That rotating, attractive in all directions, force is the key difference between the spherically complex phenomenon of gravity and the simple magnetic attraction between bar magnets.
And the force acting upon all the electrons of each each atom and molecule is not weak. It is precisely equal at every instant to the electromagnetic forces raging within the atom, which makes the weak force of gravity enormously powerful at that level. And that rotating spherical coherence produces the quantal effects, because a blizzard of photons must possess the correct spherically coherent wave-strength and wave-structure signature to enable one quantum of light to be absorbed by the atom or molecule, as Feynman’s quantal math indicates.
Now this presents us with a bit of a problem. If gravity is due to a weak spinning electromagnetic field which transmits light but reduces its power and increases its wavelength, then the observed red shift might not represent a real expansion of the universe. That is, the red shift might be a visual effect and not represent any expansion in space. Therefore the observable universe might not be expanding at all, and the universe might be eternal and forever, no start, no finish, universe without end. I know there’s a lot of other evidence which has been interpreted to support the big bang theory, but “facts are chiels that winna ding, and downa be disputed,” and this wee analysis casts a bit of doubt upon that theory, if further research validates these conjectures.
But if the universe is eternal, what is the recycling mechanism from dead galaxies filled with cold iron suns into intergalactic hydrogen? Iron appears to play a much larger part in the perpetual evolution of the universe than the place currently allotted to it. Both our own sun, Sol, and all of the planets of the solar system have iron cores which produce electromagnetic fields between them and the sun. The strength of such fields is normally low because the size of the iron cores are relatively small. But imagine a galaxy at the end of its evolution entirely composed of cold iron suns. The electromagnetic grooming of these cold stars would produce, in time (and there is always enough time) a powerful electromagnetic field between the iron suns outside the galactic centre and the large mass of cold suns near the centre. These remote cold suns would accelerate, spinning as they go, into the galactic centre at increasingly high speeds, often approaching a high fraction of the speed of light. The previously dark galaxy would turn into a quasar, a giant atomic re-processor, spraying out streams of alpha particles, neutrons and electrons and all other kinds of matter and energy out of the central gun of the galaxy, in the largest conceivable death ray “star”. These quasars provide a solution to two puzzles — first, they may provide a process which maintains the observed proportions of matter in the observed universe, along with one answer to Fermi’s question about why intelligent life is not everywhere in this universe. Our home galaxy of the Milky Way has an early-development quasar pointing right at it, and all life in this galaxy will end when that quasar really gets going, hopefully in a several billion years from now.
This theory also may open up the future science of gravitational electro-magnetics. It seems that all large objects have a rapidly rotating electromagnetic field which grooms local matter into a kind of spherical electromagnetic coherence and through that common electromagnetic resonance produces an attractive force (previously known as gravity) which clumps up nearby matter into larger aggregations. If an artificial object could be created with a electromagnetic spin which spun counter to the rotating electromagnetic spinfield of the universe, or local matter, then a Clarkian electromagnetic motor with no moving parts which converted electrical energy into direct propulsion might possibly be created. The usefulness of any theory resides in its practical applications and I think this new theory may have several such. But these considerations are too large for this essay.
Kurt Godel, perhaps the greatest mathematician of the 20th century, gave Einstein a interestingly different model of the universe as a present on Bert’s 70th birthday. It is the Godel Metric, the model of a universe which spins. That might be a more accurate representation of the universe than the most frequently proposed ones. See Wikipedia’s explanation of the Godel Metric at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6del_metric
It could conceivably be unwise, in economics or in physics, to build complex mathematical models on the basis of uncertain and unproven assumptions. We know we do not have all the answers and much of the progress made in the 20th century (by people such as Heisenberg and Godel) indicates we may never possess all of these, but we can perhaps understand more within the acknowledged limits of uncertainty and indeterminacy.
One final (for now) result from these deliberations is the interesting calculation of the amount of free energy in space. Because the number N of particles in the universe is 10^80 and the force previously known a G is equal to e/10^40, then the free energy of space is equal to NG, or (10^80)*e/10^40 or 10^40e. It seems that all the energy external to all the atoms in the universe is approximately equal to all the inter-atomic energy, and Newton’s law therefore might apply to the macrocosm.
8.1 The force of gravity may result from the adoption of an electromagnetic coherence in the similarity of the spinning electromagnetic fields of matter, and the gravitational constant is equal to the electromagnetic constant times the ratio of the radius of the atom divided by the radius of the observable universe.
8.2 The force of gravity may therefore be a natural result arising from the residual external attraction produced by the sum of coherent electromagnetic molecular spins.
8.2 Each molecule in the universe is groomed by and spins partly in accordance with the universal electromagnetic spinfield of the universe, which may account for the observed quantal forces because only certain electron orbits are commensurate with that spinfield.
8.3 This new understanding, if it proves to be the case by experimental checking, may permit further advances in many areas but particularly in the creation of electromagnetic propulsion devices — that is, not only is magnetic levitation now possible but also electromagnetic propulsion may become available.
© George Tait Edwards 2014
Note: for some more information relevant to this topic see the gravity force coupling constant at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/couple.html