The continual exchange of matter and the palm oil boom

Climate change and increased land use are threatening globally important ecosystems. An ecosystem is defined as a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. As environments, forests and oceans are important habitats because they mitigate climate change. Both habitats, on land or on water, absorb carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere and contribute to continuous changes in climate patterns.

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An ecosystem is often represented by a network. To the naked eye, the qualities of a spiderweb such as its strength, complexity, and fragility hold a more organic representation. Each line or thread in this web could represent an ecological habitat or niche where a part is connected to a whole. …


Georges Hattab

Georges is a scientist, creative writer, sci-fi fan, and fervent hiker. Visit him at

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