Maintaining high-speed consensus through multiple chains and dynamic shards

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In our previous article, we talked a bit about what led up to Pchain and why Pchain made the framework decisions they did. That left us with a fairly high-level overview of how Pchain operates, but under the hood is a fascinating and complex evolution of PBFT that seemingly solves what is known as the Trilemma: every distributed network is a trade-off of time to finality, protocol overhead, and decentralization [Fig.1].


The dynamically sharding, multichain DPoS smart contract platform for large scale decentralized applications

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I know the title is a big statement, but I don’t mean it negatively. Ethereum rocked the world with their idea of a distributed virtual machine executing smart contracts that serve as the basis of trustless and decentralized applications. But what we saw in 2018 was a flurry of token creation, ICOs, and DApps that quickly congested the network. DApps like Cryptokitties showed the potential of decentralized applications but also showed the network wasn't ready for the scale of use it was seeing. During this time, this congestion drove transaction fees from $0.20 to over $5 per transaction. …


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While there are certainly several IoT concerned crypto projects out there, there is only one front runner, IOTA. This leaves many wondering how INT stacks up against what many believe to be the future of IoT networks. I did cover IOTA in my previous comparison article, against many other projects, but many things have changed and the complexity of where IOTA is today makes it worth more of a deep-dive look.

To keep in mind some of the important qualities discussed in the comparison article on what makes a good IoT network:

-Scalability — How does it globally scale, to…


If you would like to read this in white paper format, click here.

Abstract

Data transmission is one of the core functions of IoT. Decisions being made within the network will rely on data to do so. Existing protocols for the storing and retrieval of data in a distributed network are general in their approach and do not provide in protocol privacy controls. IPFS is the leader in this space but is focusing on decentralized Internet. Using the file hash as the requesting key, building a picture of who-requests-what can lead to a breakdown of anonymity. …


Implementing privacy and anonymity in INT Transactions

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The years of 2017 and ’18 were years focused on the topic of scaling. Coins forked and projects were hyped with this word as their sole mantra. What this debate brought us were solutions and showed us that where we are right now satisfies the current need when paired with a plan for the future. What will be the focus of years to come will be anonymity and fungibility in mass adoption.

In the quickly evolving world of connected data, privacy is becoming a topic of immediate importance. As it stands, we trust our privacy to centralized corporations where safety…


Scaling as a function of finality

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As long as every node independently verifies the entirety of all transactions in the network, the network can only process as many transactions as one node is capable of.

In Part 1 of this series, we discussed PoW finality and the consequence of the consensus mechanism which allows there to always be a chance the chain will be overtaken by another competing chain, thereby reverting transactions. So transaction finality is never a guarantee. Because of this, all nodes in the network verify all blocks and all transactions. …


Working Together to Make a Different World

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Who we are

We are a diverse group with backgrounds in Research and Technology, Engineering, Server Administration and Supply Chain, with a combined 7 years of experience in mining/node building and maintenance to carry us into the next era of blockchain technology. We are a team that shares a passion for blockchain technology and it’s application in the future.

We see the Internet of Things (IoT) as being the ultimate manifestation of this technology. …


Graphene Block Propagation Protocol For Increasing Throughput

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INT is currently testing their main net which includes proving many things from proper wallet function and transaction broadcasting to block production and block propagation. But one of the more important characteristics, especially for an IoT network of this scale, is the throughput of the network.

Several weeks ago, INT released an update saying they had stress tested the network and it fell short of their TPS expectations.

As we know from Part 2 of the DBFT and DPoS series, a Bitcoin-type blockchain with 1 MB blocks (which is what INT’s main chain is built upon) with 10 second blocks…


Why PoW networks can’t scale

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This is only concerned with scaling on layer 1 of the network. Second layer scaling solutions is another topic entirely.

Scaling, one of the more popular words in the greater blockchain buzzword bingo that has a lot of people demanding it without many understanding the intricacies involved in successfully implementing a lasting solution. Scaling is not as simple as increasing block size and quickening block generation. Transactions have weight, require computation, need to be communicated through all nodes and the blockchains they are included in require storage in their ever growing state. …


The Importance of Finality In Cross-Chain Communication

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“Objective and unambiguous 100% finality is a critical property for all blockchains that wish to support inter-blockchain communication. Absent 100% finality, a reversion on one chain could have irreconcilable ripple effects across all interconnected chains.” — Daniel Larimer

This will be a three part series in the finality and scalability in interconnected networks.

Finality, the irreversibility in the transferring of ownership, is something that many of us don’t think about in our day-to-day dealings. We trust that when we see our paycheck arrive in our bank account that the money is ours to spend, that when we swipe our card…

Graytrain

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