You’ve nailed it. I feel nervous every time I pay online with credit card because of friction and risk of failed payments caused by 2FA regulation in India. Then HDFC Bank’s PayZapp mobile payment app came along and, for a while, I thought my bill pay woes had ended. Then, PayZapp too started failing around 25% of the time. So, I now feel nervous every time I use PayZapp. As a technology professional, I can surmise where exactly the problem lies: not high enough uptime of each of the moving parts — electronic payment gateway, acquirer, card network and issuer — through which an online credit card payment must traverse. When I talk to people in the banks and fintechs running these moving parts, each of them is very proud of their respective 90%+ uptime, little realizing that, in a customer journey comprising 4 steps, 90% uptime at each step translates to a pathetic overall journey uptime of 65%. None of them appreciates that anything less than 100% success rate is just not acceptable for a critical activity like payment. And then they wonder why Cash on Delivery constitutes for 70% of ecommerce purchases in India!