Kickstart a Jakarta EE 8 Application

Hantsy
Hantsy
Dec 7, 2019 · 16 min read

karta EE 8 starter is a boilerplate project to help you to bootstrap a new Java EE 8/Jakarta EE 8 application in seconds.

Jakarta EE 8 was released at the first Jakarta EE One online conference which was driven by Eclipse Foundation.

Jakarta EE 8 is the first version released by Eclipse Foundation. Compared to the previous Java EE 8, the new Jakarta EE 8 neither introduced new specifications nor updated the existing ones , the main work was moving all specifications and related projects to Eclipse foundation, and cleaning up the issue of their licenses.

Now Jakarta EE is a completely a community-driven project, more info about Jakarta EE 8, please navigate the official Jakarta EE website.

Prerequisites

Before starting a new Jakarta EE 8 project, make sure the following software have been installed in your local system.

Java 8

There are a few options available.

Additionally, Azul, Amazon, Alibaba, and Microsoft have maintained their own OpenJDK redistribution for their products.

Personally I prefer AdoptOpenJDK, because it is maintained by Java community.

Optionally, set a JAVA_HOME environment variable and add <JDK installation dir>/bin in the PATH environment variable.

Open your terminal, execute the following command to verify your Java environment installed successfully.

#java -version
openjdk version "1.8.0_232"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (AdoptOpenJDK)(build 1.8.0_232-b09)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (AdoptOpenJDK)(build 25.232-b09, mixed mode)

At the moment, Java 13 was released for a while. But for building a Jakarta EE 8 application, Java 8 is highly recommended. Some Jakarta EE application servers, such as Glassfish is not compatible with the latest Java 13.

Apache Maven

Download a copy of the latest of Apache Maven 3 , and extract the files into your local system. Optionally, set up a M2_HOME environment variable, and also do not forget to append <Maven Installation dir>/bin your PATH environment variable.

Type the following command to verify Apache Maven is working.

#mvn -v
Apache Maven 3.6.2 (40f52333136460af0dc0d7232c0dc0bcf0d9e117; 2019-08-27T23:06:16+08:00)
Maven home: D:\build\maven\bin\..
Java version: 1.8.0_232, vendor: AdoptOpenJDK, runtime: d:\JDK8\jre
Default locale: en_US, platform encoding: Cp1252
OS name: "windows 10", version: "10.0", arch: "amd64", family: "windows"

Jakarta EE 8 Application Servers

In the Jakarta EE Compatible Products , there is a full list of application servers that are compatible with the newest Jakarta EE 8 specification, including:

  • Glassfish v5.1 is an open-source Java EE/Jakarta EE application server. In the past years, it was the official Java EE reference implementation for a long time, now it is donated to Eclipse Foundation as part of Eclipse EE4J project.
  • Payara Server 193 is a fork of Glassfish, and provides more quickly patch fixes for commercial support customers.
  • Wildfly 18.0.0 is the rebranded open-source JBoss application server from Redhat.
  • OpenLiberty 19.0.0.9 is an open-source application server sponsored by IBM. OpenLiberty follows a monthly-cycle release and the development is very active in the past years.

Development Tools

There are several rich IDEs or simple code editors available for coding Java.

Eclipse IDE

If Eclipse is your preferred IDE, to get better experience of Java EE development, Eclipse IDE for Enterprise Java Developers is highly recommended.

Alternatively, you can select a commercial version, such as Red Hat CodeReady Studio which is free for developers.

Apache NetBeans IDE

Apache NetBeans IDE is the easiest tools for building Java and Java EE/Jakarta EE applications. For those new to Java/Java EE, it is highly recommended.

Intellij IDEA

Intellij IDEA has two versions, the free open-sourced community edition and the full-featured commercial ultimate edition. The community edition just contains basic features to develop Java application, and also includes essential supports of other languages, such as Groovy, Kotlin, etc., the later has richer support of building enterprise applications.

If you are a big fan of IDEA, to work more productive, you should consider to buy a commercial license.

VisualStudio Code

if you are stick on simple code editor for coding, VS Code is really a good choice.

Benefit from the effort of Microsoft and Redhat, VS Code also has great Java support via Java extension pack , you can simply install it from VS Code marketpalce.

Bootstrap a new Jakarta EE project

Firstly you can use this project as template and prepare the initial project skeleton.

Prepare Project Skeleton

Open your browser, and navigate to Jakarta EE 8 Starter page, click the Use this template button, it will guide your to create a new repository under your Github account, and use this project as template to initialize the repository.

After it is done, you can check out the source codes from your Github account.

git clone https://github.com/<your account>/<your jakartaee project>

Or check out the source codes of this project into your local system directly, and push it back to your Github account later.

git clone https://github.com/hantsy/jakartaee8-starter

The project skeleton is ready, then import the source codes into your favorite IDE.

Import the project codes into IDEs

Apache NetBeans IDE, Eclipse IDE and IntelliJ IDEA have great IDE support, and VS Code also has basic Maven support if you have instaled the Java extension pack..

Apache NetBeans IDE

NetBeans can recognize Maven project directly.

  1. Open File->Open Project, or click the Open Project icon button in the toolbar, or use Ctrl+Shift+O shortcuts to start up the Open Project dialog.
  2. Select the folder of the source codes, it should be displayed as a NetBeans Maven project icon.

Eclipse IDE

  1. Click File-> Import… from the main menu to open the Import dialog.
  2. Select Maven/Existing Maven Projects in tree nodes, and click Next button to continue.
  3. In the Import Maven projects, select root folder of the source codes.

4. Click Finish button to import the project into the current Eclipse workspace.

Intellij IDEA

  1. Click File->New->Project from Existing Sources…. from main menu.
  2. In the Select File or Directory to Import… dialog, select the folder node of the source codes, click Ok button.
  3. In the Import project… dialog, choose the Import from external model option, and then select Maven in list, click Finish button.

If it is the first time to create a Jakarta EE 8 project, it will take some time to resolve the Maven dependencies, please be patient and wait for seconds.

Explore the Sample Codes

Now let’s take a glance at the sample codes, by default the project file structure looks like the following:

├── .github
│ ├── ISSUE_TEMPLATE
│ │ └── bug_report.md
│ └── workflows
│ └── maven.yml
├── src
│ ├── main
│ │ ├── java
│ │ │ └── com
│ │ │ └── example
│ │ │ ├── GreetingMessage.java
│ │ │ ├── GreetingResource.java
│ │ │ ├── GreetingService.java
│ │ │ └── JaxrsActivator.java
│ │ └── resources
│ │ └── META-INF
│ │ └── beans.xml
│ └── test
│ ├── java
│ │ └── com
│ │ └── example
│ │ ├── it
│ │ │ ├── GreetingResourceTest.java
│ │ │ └── GreetingServiceTest.java
│ │ └── GreetingMessageTest.java
│ └── resources
│ └── arquillian.xml
├── .gitignore
├── LICENSE
├── pom.xml
└── README.md

The .github folder holds the Github specific configurations, eg, issue templates, Github Actions workflows.

The src/main/java includes some sample codes:

  • GreetingMessage is a simple POJO to present a greeting message.
  • GreetingService is a simple CDI managed bean used to building a greeting message.
  • GreetingResource is a simple JAX-RS resource to produce RESTful APIs.
  • JaxrsActivator is the JAX-RS application class which is used to activate JAX-RS in Jakarta EE applications.

The src/main/java/resources/META-INF/beans.xml is a CDI configuration file.

The src/test/java includes some ample codes for testing purpose.

The src/test/java/resources/arquillian.xml is a JBoss Arquillian sample configuration file.

Run on Application Servers

Apache NetBeans, Eclipse and Intellij IDEA have great Jakarta EE support, you can run the Jakarta EE applications in IDEs directly.

Using Apache NetBeans IDE

NetBeans has built-in support for Glassfish and Payara server. Let’s start with Glassfish.

Glassfish Server

Firstly, you should add a Glassfish server instance in NetBeans.

  1. Click Windows->Services or use Ctrl+5 shortcuts to open Services view .
  2. Right click the Servers node, select Add Server… in the context menu.
  3. In the Add Server Instance dialog, there are three steps:
  • Choose Server :select Glassfish in the server list, click Next button.
  • Server Location: select the Glassfish server location, click Next button.
  • Domain name/Location: use the default domain1 as domain name, click Finish button.

After it is done, there is a new node Glassfish server added under the Servers nodes.

Right click the Glassfish server node, there is a few actions available for you to control the server instance, such as Start, Stop, Debug etc.

Let’s start the Glassfish server by click Start in the context menu. Wait for seconds, you will see the Output screen similar to the following.

Switch to Project view, right click the project node, and select Run in the context menu.

In the Select deployment server, select Glassfish server we have created in the dropdown menu.

It will try to build the project and deploy the application into the NetBeans managed Glassfish server. After it is deployed successfully, there is success message in the Output windows.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Deploying on GlassFish Server
profile mode: false
debug mode: false
force redeploy: true
In-place deployment at D:\hantsylabs\jakartaee8-starter\target\jakartaee8-starter

Let’s switch to Server view, there several nodes are displayed under Glassfish servers. Expand the Application node, you will see there is a node jakartaee8-starter there.

Currently the application just serves a RESTful APIs at /api/greeting endpoints. Open a terminal and use curl or Postman to test the APIs.

curl http://localhost:8080/jakartaee8-starter/api/greeting/hantsy
{"message":"Say Hello to hantsy at 2019-11-04T16:16:13.509"}

Payara Server

Payara server is derived from Glassfish project, the steps of using Payara server in NetBeans is very similar with Glassfish server. Play it yourself.

Unfortunately at the moment of writing this post, the original Wildfly plugin is not aligned with Jakarta EE 8, and it is missing in NetBeans Plugin portal, and there is also no OpenLiberty support via NetBeans plugin.

Using Eclipse IDE

Through Eclipse Marketplace, it is easy to get Glassfish, Wildfly, OpenLiberty supports in Eclipse IDE.

Glassfish Server

Follow the following steps to install Eclipse Glassfish Tools plugin into Eclipse IDE.

  1. Open Eclipse Marketplace from Help-> Eclipse Marketplace menu.
  2. Type Glassfish in the search box to filter Glassfish plugins.
  3. In the search result, find Glassfish tools , click the Install button to install it.
  4. After it is installed, restart Eclipse IDE to apply the plugin.

Next let’s create a Glassfish Server instance.

If the Servers view is not opened, try to open it from Windows->Show Views->Servers menu, or open the Java EE Perspective->Open Perspective-> Other… to find the Java EE perspective, it will include an open Servers for you.

Right click on the blank space in the Servers view, select New->Server in the context menu.

In the New Server wizard, select Glassfish in the Define a New Server step, then click Next button.

In the Glassfish runtime properties dialog, select the Glassfish location, and choose a JDK 8 to run Glassfish, click Next button.

In the Glassfish Application Server properties step, use the default values, click Finish button.

There is a new node will be appeared in the Servers view.

It is easy to control the applcation server in the Servers view, such as start, stop, restart, deploy and undeploy etc.

Right click the Glassfish node, and select Start to start Glassfish server. After it is started successfully, under the Glassfish node, it will include the resources in the Glassfish server.

Ok, let’s try to run the application on Glassish server.

In the Project or Packages view, right click the project node, and click Run As…-> Run on Server.

In the Run on Server dialog, select Glassfish, and click Finish button. Wait for seconds, it will build, package and deploy the application into Glassfish server. When it is done, you will see there is a Deployed Applications under the Glassfish node in the Servers view. Expand this node, there is a jakartaee8-starter node, it is our application.

Open your terminal, try to access the sample endpoint api/greeting/{name} via curl command.

curl http://localhost:8080/jakartaee8-starter/api/greeting/hantsy
{"message":"Say Hello to hantsy at 2019-12-03T14:05:28.437"}

To undeploy the application, in Servers view, expand Glassfish 5->Glassfish Management->Deployed Applications, right click jakartaee8-starter, click Undeploy in the context menu.

Or right click Glassfish 5-> jakartaee8-starter, click Remove in the context menu.

Wildfly

If you are using the official Eclipse IDE, you should install Redhat CodeReady Studio to get Wildfly server support.

Follow the following steps to install Redhat CodeReady Studio plugin into Eclipse IDE.

  1. Open Eclipse Marketplace from Help-> Eclipse Marketplace menu.
  2. Click the Redhat icon in the bottom Marketplaces area of Eclipse Marketplace dialog to switch to Redhat marketplace.
  3. Select Redhat CodeReady Studio , click the Install button to install it.
  4. After it is installed, restart Eclipse IDE to apply the plugin.

Next let’s create a Wildfly Server instance.

Right click on the blank area in the Servers view, select New->Server in the context menu.

Expand JBoss Community node in the tree list, select Wildfly 18, click Next button.

In the Create a new Server Adapter step, use the default selections, click Next button.

In the JBoss Runtime, select the Wildfly server location in your system, click Finish button.

After it is done, there is a Wildfly instance in the Servers view.

Ok, let’s try to run the application on Wildfly server.

In the Project or Packages view, right click the project node, and click Run As…-> Run on Server.

If the Wildlfy is not started, it will start the server firstly, then build, package and deploy the application into the Wildfly Server.

After it is started , open your terminal, try to access the sample endpoint api/greeting/{name} via curl command.

curl http://localhost:8080/jakartaee8-starter/api/greeting/hantsy
{"message":"Say Hello to hantsy at 2019-12-03T16:34:59.095"}

To undeploy the application, just right click the jakartaee8-starter node under the Wildfly instance node in the Servers view, and click Remove in the context menu. It will start undeploying the application, you can see the progress in the Console view.

16:36:13,619 INFO  [org.wildfly.extension.undertow] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 8) WFLYUT0022: Unregistered web context: '/jakartaee8-starter' from server 'default-server'
16:36:13,670 INFO [org.jboss.as.server.deployment] (MSC service thread 1-5) WFLYSRV0028: Stopped deployment jakartaee8-starter.war (runtime-name: jakartaee8-starter.war) in 80ms
16:36:13,758 INFO [org.jboss.as.server] (DeploymentScanner-threads - 1) WFLYSRV0009: Undeployed "jakartaee8-starter.war" (runtime-name: "jakartaee8-starter.war")

Open Liberty

To manage Open Liberty server in Eclipse IDE, you should install Open Liberty Developer tools pluign.

Follow the following steps to install Open Liberty Developer Tools plugin into Eclipse IDE.

  1. Open Eclipse Marketplace from Help-> Eclipse Marketplace menu.
  2. Type Liberty in the search box and hit Enter to search it.
  3. In the result list, find IBM Liberty Developer Tools , then click Install button to start the installation.
  4. After it is installed, restart Eclipse IDE to apply the plugin.

Next let’s create an OpenLiberty Server instance.

Right click on the blank area in the Servers view, select New->Server in the context menu.

Expand IBM node in the tree list, select Liberty, and click Next button.

In the Liberty Runtime Environmentr step, set the Liberty location, click Next button.

In the New Liberty Server, there is a ** template** field, make sure javaee-8.0 is selected, others use the default values, click Finish button.

After it is done, there is a Liberty Server instance in the Servers view.

Ok, let’s try to run the application on Open Liberty server.

In the Project or Packages view, right click the project node, and click Run As…-> Run on Server.

If the Liberty server is not started, it will start the server firstly, then build, package and deploy the application into the Liberty Server.

If it is first time to run Liberty server, it will popup a dialog for you to setup the keystore. Set up it as you like.

After it is started successfully, you can see the following like info in the Console view.

[AUDIT   ] CWPKI0803A: SSL certificate created in 4.902 seconds. SSL key file: D:/appsvr/wlp/usr/servers/defaultServer/resources/security/key.p12
[AUDIT ] CWWKI0001I: The CORBA name server is now available at corbaloc:iiop:localhost:2809/NameService.
[AUDIT ] CWWKT0016I: Web application available (default_host): http://localhost:9080/jakartaee8-starter/
[AUDIT ] CWWKZ0001I: Application jakartaee8-starter started in 2.888 seconds.
[AUDIT ] CWWKF0012I: The server installed the following features: [appClientSupport-1.0, appSecurity-2.0, appSecurity-3.0, batch-1.0, beanValidation-2.0, cdi-2.0, concurrent-1.0, distributedMap-1.0, ejb-3.2, ejbHome-3.2, ejbLite-3.2, ejbPersistentTimer-3.2, ejbRemote-3.2, el-3.0, j2eeManagement-1.1, jacc-1.5, jaspic-1.1, javaMail-1.6, javaee-8.0, jaxb-2.2, jaxrs-2.1, jaxrsClient-2.1, jaxws-2.2, jca-1.7, jcaInboundSecurity-1.0, jdbc-4.2, jms-2.0, jndi-1.0, jpa-2.2, jpaContainer-2.2, jsf-2.3, jsonb-1.0, jsonp-1.1, jsp-2.3, localConnector-1.0, managedBeans-1.0, mdb-3.2, servlet-4.0, ssl-1.0, wasJmsClient-2.0, wasJmsSecurity-1.0, wasJmsServer-1.0, webProfile-8.0, websocket-1.1].
[AUDIT ] CWWKF0011I: The defaultServer server is ready to run a smarter planet. The defaultServer server started in 54.255 seconds.

Now open your terminal, try to access the sample endpoint api/greeting/{name} via curl command.

curl http://localhost:9080/jakartaee8-starter/api/greeting/hantsy
{"message":"Say Hello to hantsy at 2019-12-03T21:34:00.033"}

Note, Liberty Server uses 9080 as port by default.

To undeploy the application, just right click the jakartaee8-starter node under the Liberty Server instance node in the Servers view, and click Remove in the context menu. It will start undeploying the application, you can see the progress in the Console view.

[AUDIT   ] CWWKG0016I: Starting server configuration update.
[AUDIT ] CWWKG0017I: The server configuration was successfully updated in 0.800 seconds.
[AUDIT ] CWWKT0017I: Web application removed (default_host): http://localhost:9080/jakartaee8-starter/
[AUDIT ] CWWKZ0009I: The application jakartaee8-starter has stopped successfully.

Using Maven CLI

Deploying and running an Jakarta EE application on application servers in IDEs is simple and stupid, but sometime, especially in CI/CD pipelines, using command line based scripts is more effective.

Through maven plugins it is easy to deploy and run the application on the target servers.

Glassfish

The legacy official maven-glassfish-plugin is discontinued, but there is a better alternative existed. Cargo project provide a common way to deploy the applications into Jakarta EE application servers by maven plugin, Ant tasks, and pure Java APIs. Most of the popular application servers are got supported. Generally, it provides 3 approaches to deploy applications.

  • Remote- Deploying to a running application server via client APIs
  • Local — Controlling the lifecycle of application servers such as start and stop, etc.
  • Embedded — Package the application and the application server into a single package and run it.

Most of the application servers support remote and local deployment.

Deploying to a running server

The following is using a maven profile to configure the remote deployment.

<profile>
<id>glassfish-remote</id>
<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.codehaus.cargo</groupId>
<artifactId>cargo-maven2-plugin</artifactId>
<configuration>
<container>
<containerId>glassfish5x</containerId>
<type>remote</type>
</container>
<configuration>
<type>runtime</type>
<properties>
<!-- <cargo.remote.username>admin</cargo.remote.username>
<cargo.remote.password>adminadmin</cargo.remote.password>
<cargo.glassfish.admin.port>4848</cargo.glassfish.admin.port>
<cargo.hostname>localhost</cargo.hostname>-->
</properties>
</configuration>
</configuration>
<!-- provides JSR88 client API to deploy on Glassfish/Payara Server -->
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.glassfish.main.deployment</groupId>
<artifactId>deployment-client</artifactId>
<version>${glassfish.version}</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>
</profile>

It depends on the Glassfish deployment client, and if you have set the admin password in the target Glassfish server, try to set the related properties.

Before deploying, make sure the Glassfish is running, then execute the following command to start deployment.

mvn package cargo:deploy -Pglassfish-remote

After it is deployed successfully, try to access the sample API endpoint.

Deploying to a local Glassfish server

Similarly, I use another maven profile to configure the local Glassfish server. You can use an existing Glassfish or download a fresh copy for deployment purpose as the following.

<profile>
<id>glassfish-local</id>
<properties>
<glassfish.home>${project.build.directory}/glassfish5</glassfish.home>
<glassfish.domainDir>${glassfish.home}/glassfish/domains</glassfish.domainDir>
<glassfish.domainName>domain1</glassfish.domainName>
</properties>
<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
<version>${maven-dependency-plugin.version}</version>
<executions>
<execution>
<id>unpack</id>
<phase>process-resources</phase>
<goals>
<goal>unpack</goal>
</goals>
<configuration>
<artifactItems>
<artifactItem>
<!--
<groupId>fish.payara.distributions</groupId>
<artifactId>payara</artifactId>
<version>${payara.version}</version>
<type>zip</type>
-->
<groupId>org.glassfish.main.distributions</groupId>
<artifactId>glassfish</artifactId>
<version>${glassfish.version}</version>
<type>zip</type>
<overWrite>false</overWrite>
<outputDirectory>${project.build.directory}</outputDirectory>
</artifactItem>
</artifactItems>
</configuration>
</execution>
</executions>
</plugin>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.codehaus.cargo</groupId>
<artifactId>cargo-maven2-plugin</artifactId>
<version>${cargo-maven2-plugin.version}</version>
<configuration>
<container>
<containerId>glassfish5x</containerId>
<type>installed</type>
<home>${glassfish.home}</home>
</container>
<configuration>
<type>existing</type>
<home>${glassfish.domainDir}</home>
<properties>
<cargo.glassfish.domain.name>${glassfish.domainName}</cargo.glassfish.domain.name>
<cargo.remote.timeout>600000</cargo.remote.timeout>
<cargo.remote.password></cargo.remote.password>
</properties>
</configuration>
</configuration>
<!-- provides JSR88 client API to deploy on Glassfish/Payara Server -->
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.glassfish.main.deployment</groupId>
<artifactId>deployment-client</artifactId>
<version>${glassfish.version}</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>
</profile>

Run the following command to start the application server and deploy the application to the server.

mvn package cargo:deploy -Pglassfish-local

It will down a copy of Glassfish archive and extract the files, then start the server, and deploy the application finally.

More info about Cargo maven plugin for Glassfish, see here.

Payara Server

The Payara Server is similar with Glassfish, Cargo also support Payara Server as well, copy the above Glassfish configuration, replace the glassfish facilities with payara one.

More info about Cargo maven plugin support for Payara, see here.

Wildfly Server

Redhat Wildfly has official maven plugin support for application deployment and application server management.

Declare a wildfly maven plugin in the pom.xml file.

<!-- The WildFly plugin deploys your war to a local WildFly container -->
<!-- To use, run: mvn package wildfly:deploy -->
<plugin>
<groupId>org.wildfly.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>wildfly-maven-plugin</artifactId>
<version>2.0.1.Final</version>
</plugin>

Make sure there is a running Wildfly server, and run the following command to start deploymaent.

mvn package wildfly:deploy

You can also add some configuration to Wildfly by maven plugin, such as registering a JDDC driver module, configuring a DataSource, etc, more information please read the Wildfy maven plugin documentation.

OpenLiberty Server

OpenLiberty provides an official maven plugin for application deployment.

<!-- Enable liberty-maven-plugin -->
<plugin>
<groupId>io.openliberty.tools</groupId>
<artifactId>liberty-maven-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.1</version>
</plugin>

liberty:dev provides a dev mode for developers.

liberty:run is easy to run the application on an embedded OpenLiberty server.

Through liberty:deploy , it also can deploy an application to an external running LibertyServer if the apps or dropins folder is configured.

More info about Liberty maven plugin, see here.

Star the karta EE 8 starter project and start your Jakarta EE application.

Resources

Hantsy

Written by

Hantsy

Self-employed technical consultant, solution architect and full-stack developer

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