THE THEORY OF ALMOST EVERYTHING

  1. This series of writings are not meant to give classroom lectures on Physics or Mathematics. These are meant to connect everything from a point in our imagination to the reality we feel we live in. There is a need to understand the difference between emotions and logic, former is always seen as a sign of life and latter is disregarded in routine life as a mechanical process. However, over years of struggle with reality for an understanding , the finding was NOT emotional. Emotions themselves are incomplete logic with only the part only creating own importance being calculated. I discovered that it is the emotions which are anti-universe and anti-life. The Universe, NOT yours or mine, but as we feel it collectively is cold, logical and firm. Emotions, the word itself, when we say it, we think something else and convey something else. For instance, Attachment is an emotion while Love is a virtue. However, the virtue is often quoted as reference point of righteousness in emotional arguments. Emotions are about an entity and about self. Emotions either force in erroneous/incomplete logic into justifying themselves or reject logic as something mechanical and unhuman like method of living and understanding.
  2. Happiness cannot be the purpose of life; it is too short in duration when compared to life duration. With these series of writings, I want the people above (NOT below) happiness to explore reality from a point to universe and back to the strange elusive “me” in all of us. So, we have to sew mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, society, philosophy and garden of emotions in us as organism and society as collective organism in one thread to build a platform to talk with minimum errors of language and understanding. The task is not only huge but herculean for a mortal to be completed. So, we may have to jump from one level to extremely higher level from that whenever the knowledge in between that is either complete or strong enough for me to be proven incomplete by me until now. Internet may be used wherever a word, or a name is unheard of. Once we build this platform of wisdom- and NOT knowledge together, words would be enough to complete sentences like a conscious artificially intelligent communication system.
  3. In this article, Einstein’s probable mistake in understanding is discussed to bridge a frustrating understanding gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity at-least with logic for now and Mathematics for later or someone out of you.
  4. Waves. Energy of a wave is directly proportional to its intensity which in turn is proportional to square of amplitude of wave. Intensity of a wave if imagined is the amount of energy packed up in a unit of wavelength easily seen from the peak of its curve. If we study all types of energy as one entity, energy is perfectly described as a wave by Maxwell and every type of energy appears to be just different forms of em energy, at least in constant vacuum spacetime as we know it.
  5. In classical Physics understanding, what does energy do to a system? Does it change its mechanical properties like mass? Does reflection of light in glass cause the glass to be heavier in mass? Does heating a gas change its mass? NO, it does not change its mechanical properties. It changes its statistical properties. It changes the motion of atoms/molecules/entity making up the system and creates a statistical distribution with higher entropy. Does energy itself has mechanical properties? No, at least not until Einstein came in picture if we ignore Newton’s corpuscles. Does it have statistical properties? Yes. How do we define its statistical properties? It is by defining it as a wave, like Maxwell did. Define it as a change on spacetime plane and tame it within a function to give it a final pseudo-mechanical variable like wavelength/frequency/intensity. Phenomena like reflection, refraction perfectly fit in light as a wave explanation.
  6. Photon. However, this wave model of light broke down when phenomena like Photoelectric effect, Black Body Radiation and Bright line spectra were discovered. How was it resolved? Einstein resolved it by converting and re-affirming Planck’s method which was actually just a mathematical trick, accidentally solving the Black Body radiation problem and Planck himself did not believe in it. Light has dual nature- the statement got popular. And this brought lifetime pain to Einstein himself later on — Quantum Mechanics. This pain gave us physical comfort with innovations but has been a mental pain to the extreme intelligence. Extreme intelligence is not comfortable with its own creation, and it is what leaves loose end for intelligence to continue but at a dangerous cost of extinction — the scale of it increasing with every such extremely intelligent understanding step. The cost of error in understanding has increased to planetary level or we are already beyond it too.
  7. Einstein’s Blunder. Einstein was an extreme intelligence of his time. And when extreme intelligence explains a phenomenon, it breaks Euler’s circle limit on knowledge and creates new dimension for life to grow. But extreme intelligence is also finite only infinitely larger than existing combined one. The irony with extreme intelligence is there is no superset intelligence to this intelligence to protect it from its own emotional irrationality. Probably, the blunder Einstein was looking for in EFE was somewhere else, it is (maybe) at the start point of EFEs itself- Photoelectric Effect. The blunder was not in calculations, but in understanding, like a computer deducing pattern from data even when there is no pattern in that data, but the conscious human intelligence knows that something went wrong somewhere. Similarly, if intelligence is compared to extreme intelligence, the relation is same as between a smart computer and human intelligence. I re-consider Photo-electric Effect with a belief that the reader already knows about it or is going to read it on internet for basic understanding before reading the next paragraph
  8. Photo-electric Effect. Consider Spontaneity again as discussed in second part to this series of articles. A phenomenon can exist only if it is either energy driven exothermic reaction or driven by entropy at a particular pseudo-mechanical statistical constant. In modern physics, energy is one entity with various subsets. Subsets are discussed only in respective branches of physics. However, here we are dealing with physics at atomic level. At this level, energy and even mass are treated as units of same currency. So, an exothermic physical reaction is simply a process where energy is released. For example, light waves raise the temperature which is depicted by heat radiating from it. Since this has been well covered and explained by Boltzmann already in thermodynamics, we don’t discuss it further. It is the second type of processes; we have not been able to reconcile with from last few centuries. Like I said, in last episode of articles, physical entropy can increase at constant time when space is created. Entropy increase can increase only numbers of statistical distribution level of a system. In photoelectric effect, we need to release electron from atom i.e., a closed space of 10^ (-10) m has to be opened up, space has to be created to make an otherwise solid sphere entity exist in two sub-entities. Let us take 10^ (-10) m as our unit of length for all frequencies of light. Frequency of a wave roughly tells us how many cycles of energy are done in one unit. When lower and higher frequencies of similar parameters other than frequency are compared, lower frequency will do a smaller number of cycles and higher frequencies will do a greater number of cycles of energy with same intensity. Higher the frequency, higher the difference between our unit of length of space and the space needed for one cycle to complete. More the difference, more the space is created to cover the difference, more the space created, more the atom is accelerated towards the direction of creation of space, more vehemently the electron is left behind which is most loosely bound to nucleus with em as compared to nuclear forces. It is only for simplicity which again leaves a scope of error in future, electron has been considered as particle when it is an em field itself only quite denser than the em wave. Only nuclear force of order of 10^(-15) m is able to cope up with this entropy increase due to space expansion and em dense wave of electron is left behind to be found as spontaneous photoelectron. This explanation does not need the wave to be a particle since the space itself carrying that wave expanded here. Similar phenomenon is also seen when lumps of milk powder appear rather than dissolving, sticking together much more than its own powdered form due to rapid expansion of liquid tea/coffee on a stove, in which it is thrown and not speedily stirred. In these phenomena, we have created entropy by expanding the medium or space itself at constant Time. The time and space interchange roles at relativistic scales to let entropy run the reality. We will discuss that later.
  9. Opening up a Mechanical point. Photoelectric effect is a perfect example where a mechanical point itself creates a whole world of statistics by opening up the shell of the mechanical entity itself i.e., atom and then inducing/revealing statistical properties in the mechanical point by increasing entropy. In all phenomena where energy/light was perfectly explained as a wave, we treated atoms as a mechanical entity and all statistical changes were outside it i.e., greater than 10^ (-10) m. Now in order to open the shell of a mechanical point itself, we need energy intensity within this range i.e. I re-considered photoelectric effect; Why does it even happen, or why does anything happen at all. The Gibbs equation was the only answer I could find to anything that happens in universe. The phenomenon, when seen through Gibbs equation, is an endothermic reaction- absorbs energy, leads to decrease in energy in closed system of light and atom but the entropy of atom as a closed system increase, let us call it entropic reaction henceforth– producing one ion and one electron from an atom. Energy of an atom is mechanical property, re-arrangement of atom into ion and photoelectron is statistical property, Time of interaction is the constant which is common for both- atom system and ion-electron system.
  10. What physical factor is needed here for increasing number of arrangements possible or combinations of atom — it is the space. We have to create or expand space at atomic scale to adjust more arrangements of atom i.e., ion and photoelectron. Intuitively, space is created for giving probability space for increase in entropy of atom-photon system, with absorption of energy. But why low frequency light cannot create space. It is because of constant time factor, at a given time i.e., infinitesimally small-time interval, energy has to be imparted else it will expand the space between bigger entities i.e., at inter-atomic or molecular level, and increase temperature, which is another measure for increase in space felt as pressure and increase Kinetic Energy of molecules. Photoelectric effect may also be seen as increasing temperature of an atom — though this is the not original meaning of temperature in thermodynamics. In other words, to make the wave energy interact with atom and not the molecule, we need comparable wavelength i.e., higher frequency of again a wave only. We approximated this effect to frequency quanta and thus created famous Planck h constant. Yes, it is easier to understand now wave as photon, but it is just a shortcut, just a trick and a wrong understanding of frequency, wave, light and energy as particle and it led to greatest confusion in physics after that. It explained photo-electric effect, created relativity but also created Quantum Mechanics fuss. Space creation between atoms and molecules happens at cost of increase in temperature at the cost of increase in value of pure statistical variables i.e, take in more physical space from the space outside the system. However, in photoelectric effect, the space has to be created at atomic scale and at that scale the atom space is so small as compared to inter atomic intermolecular space that it appears as one entity. There we, need energy density of scale of atom to release photoelectron to create same effect as temperatuire in classcial physics- and not just total amount of energy which is function of intensity.
  11. I am trying to reiterate here that sometimes we make a wrong construct which explains a phenomenon perfectly but leads to infinitesimally small errors of judgment leading to contradictions in concepts discovered later. The error in understanding of phenomenon is indicated when we get stuck in future observations. If we are stuck, we have to revise our understanding and we must know that we have gone wrong somewhere in past.
  12. Light is always a wave. Conventional definition of wave holds everywhere- Wave is just a disturbance or an effect, it moves at a speed depending upon the viscosity of the fluid without any movement of the particles making the wave. In em wave, space is the medium consisting of points (imaginary particles) in fixed time, effect transmission is at c. It is never untrue in any phenomena, not even in Photoelectric effect. Planck used quanta as a trick to resolve Black Body radiation and it still remains a trick and not a factual logic. Now, Planck substitution for discrete quanta may be used as a tricky shortcut in phase space higher than information phase space. The correct explanation is always Gibbs free energy. The lower frequencies i.e. larger wavelength increases temperature of a material proportional to its intensity and not frequency. This is equivalent to simple endothermic temperature increasing non-entropic physical reaction. However, photoelectric effect is an entropic reaction. The electron has to leave atom, energy on the contrary decrease due to work function involved. Physical entropy is much more fundamental than chemical entropy of molecules, hence much more energy density demanding because here spacetime itself have to be expanded, only then the spacetime probability space for electron can be made. Hence, energy needs to be packed more in spacetime & hence it appears as if more energy packing in less spacetime i.e. high frequency makes light behave as particle i.e. photon.
  13. Quanta. This concept created Special Relativity, instigated Einstein’s mind to form a more complete EFE equation set and led to birth of Quantum Mechanics. This also created the deepest and largest crunch between deterministic Einstein-Laplace-Newton Worlds, and mystic but still Scientific Quantum World. Personally, every thinker is not comfortable with mysticism and closure of know-ability realm. Many a times, humanity made a comeback after temporarily giving up to mysticism. Sometimes, it is felt the reason is perfectly knowable, it is only when it is expressed perfectly without errors in best known language to humans in terms of accuracy i.e. Mathematics and tested with criticism from Universe that we know that we know. Einstein’s math on photoelectric effect is a workable mathematical trick or is a mathematical trick workable for photoelectric effect but needs to be changed/replaced/evolved to absorb Quantum Mechanics into Relativity (though many believe in reverse absorption) or is a fact strong enough to force me to abandon my current thinking — I am yet to know.

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