This article requires some understanding of futures, if you are not familiar with them read. To be didactic, I will give a basic primer on general and perpetual futures.

Futures are agreements to pay a fixed price for a good/service in the future. Price of the underlying asset dictates the price of the futures. It can happen that difference btw two prices is significant depending on market conditions. But as the maturity date(payment date) comes close, the futures price approaches the asset’s price. …


For those unaware, Witnet is a Decentralised Permissionless Oracle Network planning to release Mainnet in the middle of October this year. Currently they are doing regress testing and running a Testnet Incentive Program, including a Bug Bounty Program.

I have been running a Witnet node from the start of this Testnet. Alongside that, I also started looking into the code and checking out how the nodes were communicating. In order to join the network, a new node communicates with its peers and exchanges VERSION and VERACK messages to consolidate the connection. If the exchange of these messages doesn’t happen within…


A brief introduction to Witnet

Witnet is a “Decentralised Oracle Network”, transitioning to Mainnet in the next quarter. Witnet aims to be a truly decentralized and permissionless protocol. You can read more about it here.

If you’re not yet running a Witnet instance, please head here: run-a-node. Once the Witnet instance is running, we would like to interact with it. For this, Witnet binary has subcommands like node nodeStats,node blockchain etc.

How to interact with your Witnet instance via an RPC?

There are 2 ways of doing this:

  1. Issue commands to the OS, running Witnet binary as a subprocess like subprocess or os.system in Python.
  2. The Witnet instance has json rpc exposed at default port…


First backstory, coda O(1) labs announced on May 29 that testnet 3.2b is going to be launched on 8 June 2020 where users would be staking actively and creating SNARKs for load testing of coda network. It would be having limited slots (250 to be exact) and top performing teams will have place in the genesis program, eligible to 66k tokens each.

I being lucky enough and having past experience of participating in the testnet of some blockchains, got the chance to be among the selected teams.

Running coda directly on centos 7 is not possible due to gcc version…


I am writing this article as none other is available on this topic. The information is very scattered and often requires digging into code of k8s libraries. I am gonna be using Q/A style for this article.

How to read k8s resource from file? The intuitive and easy way is try to use interface{} and unmarshal YAML in it.

Last step will not working. obj is of type interface{} and conversion to complex type such as pod is not possible. Other than that, we haven’t defined function to convert interface{} to pod or other k8s resource.

Since, the above…

Harsh Jain

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