By Hasu, James Prestwich, and Brandon Curtis

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An application or protocol is secure if it realizes its goal in an adversarial environment. In the case of Bitcoin, the goal is to establish a payment system where anyone can participate, only the rightful owner can spend a coin, and all valid transactions make it into the ledger eventually.

For its first ten years of existence, Bitcoin has successfully held these security properties. At the same time, academia has largely failed to replicate Bitcoin’s empirical soundness in their models, giving birth to the meme that “Bitcoin is secure in practice, but not in theory.” …



Independent cryptocurrency researcher

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