Interesting read, good historical info. However, the victimization theme running through it is troubling. Perhaps one should ask why the Arabs were fighting the Turks in the first place, back in T.E. Lawrence’s day. And what does all the tribalism discussed here actually mean for Middle East history? Before we blame the inventors of croissants, air conditioning, and Newtonian physics for everything wrong in the Middle East, it would be well to consider what that part of the world was like for the 2000 years preceding European meddling. Ditto Africa. Tribalism and endless fighting is their story. You can blame the Europeans for trying to impose some kind of order on these places, you can ask them to keep their hands off, but if you do then don’t turn around and accuse them of being “isolationist” which is what seems to happen too often. What is it the critics of European and U.S. foreign policy would have them do?