kathleen i understand the finger on the trigger mentality being from texas, and i can understand the desire not to be french fried like so much potato. i appreciate the approach you have taken to explain the monetary entanglement imposed by a former colonial overlord who even with their socialistic outlook of trying to take care of themselves and their former subjects via colonial possession are failing africans miserably. fifty to sixty years is not a terribly long time but it should be futher along into a true independent status. no matter what france is taking ,no matter how well they feel they are helping by guardianship of africans money, your individual nation states should be able to succeed or fail entirely on your own. in researching some of countries gdp, both capita and gross national with whats available online (wikipedia and cia country facts and figures) i cannot get to your figures. your country ,cameroon has approx. 3100 per capita whereas e. quinea has 31,800 due to low population and high mineral income. the rest fall between 300–2500 depending upon whose figures you use. all the national figures barely arise to the 166 billion you use so where is france getting the 400billon from. any amount they recieve other than free trade profits is not justified. i will agree to that and your justified anger but you say this is taxation, but it is 2.5 times the gdp of all the countries so how does that math work. a second question is when are ya’ll going to stand together and tell the french no, peacefully i hope. we had to have an eight year war to stop taxation without representation.