An essay completed for Professor April Randle’s wildlife conservation course within the USF Master of Science in Environmental Management program

There is likely no ecosystem on Earth that remains wholly untouched by human activity. In 2016, a group of anthropologists argued that due to our species’ wide range and profound capacity for ecosystem engineering, “‘Pristine’ landscapes simply do not exist and, in most cases, have not existed for millennia.” (Boivin, et al. 2016).

Even where humans do not directly intervene by killing wildlife, extracting resources, or modifying habitat, the consequential externalities of our pollutive industrial and agricultural systems have far-reaching implications for environmental toxicity and climatic conditions. …

Tommy Alexander

Writing, ecology, maps, bikes, climbing, conservation, co-ops, music, & more in San Francisco, California.

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