How Mental Arithmetic Shapes the Mathematical Skills of Children: A Comprehensive Analysis

Kate Chered
5 min readJan 14, 2024


Mental arithmetic has become a significant educational trend in recent years, gaining substantial traction among parents and educators globally. This article delves into the essence of mental arithmetic, its distinctive approach compared to conventional arithmetic teaching, and the varying perspectives surrounding its effectiveness and application in children’s education.

What is Mental Arithmetic and How Does It Differ From Traditional Arithmetic Lessons?

Mental arithmetic, a methodology that has seen a surge in popularity over the last three decades, represents a specialized approach to enhancing a child’s ability to perform arithmetic calculations swiftly and accurately in their mind. Unlike traditional arithmetic, which relies primarily on rote memorization and paper-based calculations, mental arithmetic focuses on utilizing specific tools like the abacus and transitioning these skills to mental calculations.

Mental arithmetic training begins with physically manipulating beads on an abacus. This tactile experience is crucial in developing a child’s ability to visualize mathematical operations. Over time, students learn to perform complex calculations mentally at a speed often surpassing that of using a calculator. This method has been prevalent in regions like China and Japan, where abacus (Suanpan and Soroban, respectively) are traditional counting tools.

While conventional arithmetic education gradually builds up a child’s computational skills, mental arithmetic aims to accelerate this process, introducing complex operations at an earlier age. For instance, children as young as five or six who have undergone mental arithmetic training can often easily handle three-digit numbers, a feat not commonly expected in standard arithmetic curriculums until much later grades.

The distinctive nature of mental arithmetic lies in its blend of visual, tactile, and mental exercises, which foster a more holistic development of a child’s numerical and cognitive capabilities.

How Does Mental Arithmetic Benefit Children’s Cognitive Development?

Proponents of mental arithmetic tout a range of benefits that extend beyond mere numerical agility. According to various studies and expert opinions, children engaged in mental arithmetic show improved concentration, memory, and problem-solving skills. These cognitive gains are attributed to the mental visualization and manipulation of the abacus beads, which stimulate brain areas involved in memory and attention.

Mental arithmetic encourages a more profound understanding of number concepts, fostering a child’s innate number sense. This deeper comprehension is a cornerstone for more advanced mathematical learning and analytical thinking.

Evidence suggests that mental arithmetic can enhance a child’s self-confidence and academic motivation. Successfully mastering complex calculations at a young age can instill a sense of achievement and a positive attitude toward learning.

However, it’s essential to note that these benefits can vary significantly among individuals, and the efficacy of mental arithmetic may depend on factors such as the quality of instruction, the child’s learning style, and their innate affinity for numbers.

What Are the Potential Drawbacks of Mental Arithmetic for Children?

Despite its advantages, mental arithmetic is not without its critics. Some educators express concerns that this method might lead to overemphasizing speed and accuracy at the expense of conceptual understanding. There’s a risk that children may become adept at performing calculations quickly but without a deep comprehension of the underlying mathematical principles.

Mental arithmetic classes often require a significant time commitment, both in and out of the classroom. This rigorous schedule can be demanding for some children, leading to stress or burnout. Parents and educators must balance encouraging academic progress and ensuring a child’s well-being.

Another consideration is the cost of enrollment in specialized mental arithmetic programs. Often operated as franchises, these programs can be expensive, potentially limiting access to families with more resources. This economic barrier raises questions about educational equity and the broader implications of such specialized training being available predominantly to a more privileged segment of society.

Additionally, there’s a concern that mental arithmetic training might not align seamlessly with standard school curricula. Children adept in mental arithmetic may find themselves out of sync with their peers in a traditional classroom setting, potentially leading to social and academic challenges.

What Do Parents and Experts Say About Mental Arithmetic for Children?

Parental opinions on mental arithmetic are varied. Many parents report noticeable improvements in their children’s mathematical and general cognitive abilities. They often cite increased concentration, better memory retention, and a newfound enthusiasm for learning. These anecdotal accounts form a significant part of the appeal of mental arithmetic programs.

However, some parents express reservations, particularly regarding the pressure and workload associated with the training. There are concerns about children losing interest in learning due to the intensive nature of the program or struggling to apply these skills in conventional academic settings.

Experts in child development and education offer a range of perspectives. While many acknowledge the cognitive benefits of mental arithmetic, they also emphasize the importance of a well-rounded educational approach. They caution against focusing too narrowly on any teaching method and suggest integrating mental arithmetic with other pedagogical strategies to provide a more balanced educational experience.

Mental arithmetic presents opportunities and challenges in children’s education. Its potential to enhance cognitive skills is significant, yet it’s essential to consider each child’s individual needs and circumstances. As with any educational method, the key lies in a balanced, thoughtful approach that prioritizes the overall development and well-being of the child.


How Does Mental Arithmetic Differ From Traditional Arithmetic Teaching?

Mental arithmetic differs significantly from traditional arithmetic teaching in its methodology and focus. While traditional arithmetic relies on paper-based calculations and rote memorization, mental arithmetic uses tools like the abacus to develop a child’s ability to perform calculations swiftly and accurately in their mind. The approach emphasizes tactile learning through the abacus, transitioning to mental visualization of calculations, which is not typically a focus in conventional arithmetic learning.

Where Can Parents Find Mental Arithmetic Programs for Their Children?

Parents can find mental arithmetic programs in specialized educational centers or schools that offer this training. These programs are often part of franchise networks with a presence in multiple countries. Searching online for local mental arithmetic centers or requesting recommendations from other parents and educational forums can help locate these programs.

What Are the Cognitive Benefits of Mental Arithmetic for Children?

Mental arithmetic offers several cognitive benefits for children, including improved concentration, enhanced memory, better problem-solving skills, and increased number sense. These benefits arise from the mental visualization and manipulation involved in using the abacus, which stimulates key areas of the brain associated with memory and attention.

When Is the Best Age for Children to Start Learning Mental Arithmetic?

The optimal age for children to start learning mental arithmetic is typically between 4 and 14 years. This range is considered ideal as it aligns with the developmental stage where children are most receptive to the skills taught in mental arithmetic, such as visualization, concentration, and numerical understanding.