References

References to the papers in Journalism Trends & Technologies

Pay Models for Online News

Making content king online

by Aurelija Gackaite

[1] Europe’s successful paid content strategies. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.themediabriefing.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Europe_s_Paid_Content_Strategies_2_.pdf

[2] Kawamoto, K. (2003). Digital Journalism: Emerging Media and the Changing Horizons of Journalism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers;.p. 10–12

[3] Ibid. p. 4

[4] Pickard, V., & Williams, A. T. (2014). Salvation Or Folly?: The promises and perils of digital paywalls. Digital Journalism, 2(2), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2013.865967

[5] What is Digital Content? (2011, December 19). Retrieved from http://www.econtentmag.com/Articles/Resources/Defining-EContent/What-is-Digital-Content-79501.htm

[6] Kawamoto, K. (2003). Digital Journalism: Emerging Media and the Changing Horizons of Journalism. (see footnote 2)

[7] Pay Models in European News. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/publications/2017/pay-models-european-news/

[8] Sirkkunen, E., Mikihito, T., & Tampere Research Centre for Journalism, M., and C. (2012). Chasing sustainability on the net: international research on 69 journalistic pure players and their business models. Tampere: University of Tampere.

[9] Costa, C. T. (2013). A Business Model for Digital Journalism: How Newspapers should Embrace Technology, Social and Value Added Services. Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. p. 68

[10] Pay Models in European News. (see footnote 7)

[11] Estok, D. (2011). Paywalls. Journal of Professional Communication, 1(1).

[12] Skok, D. (2017, April 20). Why the SaaS era of journalism will be our most exciting. Retrieved from https://medium.com/startup-grind/why-the-saas-era-of-journalism-will-be-our-most-exciting-226f4e872b46

[13] Pavlik, J. V. (2013). INNOVATION AND THE FUTURE OF JOURNALISM. Digital Journalism, 1(2), 181–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2012.756666

[14] Drizzle. (2016, November 22). Paywalls Are On The Rise with Many Success Stories. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@getdrizzle/paywalls-are-on-the-rise-with-many-success-stories-3a7101f55bea

[15] Estok, D. (2011). Paywalls. (see footnote 11)

[16] Opinion | A Letter to Our Readers About Digital Subscriptions. (2011, March 17). The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/opinion/l18times.html

[17] Pickard, V., & Williams, A. T. (2014). Salvation Or Folly?: The promises and perils of digital paywalls. (see footnote 4)

[18] The New York Times: Get a Digital Subscription. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/subscription/inyt/lp8U87X.html

[19] Subscription. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://bmtoolbox.net/patterns/subscription/

[20] Cook, J. E., & Attari, S. Z. (2012). Paying for What Was Free: Lessons from the New York Times Paywall. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(12), 682–687. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0251

[21] Macnamara, J. (2010). Remodelling media: The urgent search for new media business models. Media International Australia, 137.

[22] Pay Models in European News. (see footnote 7)

[23] International | Subscriptions and Membership | The Guardian. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://subscribe.theguardian.com/int

[24] Dick, A. S., & Lord, K. R. (1998). The impact of membership fees on consumer attitude and choice. Psychology and Marketing, 15(1), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1<41::AID-MAR4>3.0.CO;2-N

[25] Carvajal, M., García-Avilés, J. A., & González, J. L. (2012). CROWDFUNDING AND NON-PROFIT MEDIA: The emergence of new models for public interest journalism. Journalism Practice, 6(5–6), 638–647. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2012.667267

[26] Pfauth, E.-J. (2016). Why Subscriptions are the Future of Journalism. Editor & Publisher. Retrieved from http://www.editorandpublisher.com/feature/why-subscriptions-are-the-future-of-journalism/

[27] Pickard, V., & Williams, A. T. (2014). Salvation Or Folly?: The promises and perils of digital paywalls. (see footnote 4)

[28] Macnamara, J. (2010). Remodelling media: The urgent search for new media businness models. (see footnote 21)

[29] Cook, J. E., & Attari, S. Z. (2012). Paying for What Was Free: Lessons from the New York Times Paywall. (see footnote 20)

[30] Fletcher, R., & Nielsen, R. K. (2017). Paying for Online News: A comparative analysis of six countries. Digital Journalism, 5(9), 1173–1191. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2016.1246373

[31] Myllylahti, M. (2014). NEWSPAPER PAYWALLS — THE HYPE AND THE REALITY: A study of how paid news content impacts on media corporation revenues. Digital Journalism, 2(2), 179–194.

[32] Cook, J. E., & Attari, S. Z. (2012). Paying for What Was Free: Lessons from the New York Times Paywall. (see footnote 20)

[33] Picard, R. G. (2013, June 20). Digital news is finally starting to pay. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/media/media-blog/2013/jun/20/digital-news-paywalls

[34] Pickard, V., & Williams, A. T. (2014). Salvation Or Folly?: The promises and perils of digital paywalls. (see footnote 4)

[35] Ibid.

[36] Macnamara, J. (2010). Remodelling media: The urgent search for new media businness models. (see footnote 21)

[37] Edmonds, R. (2011, August 4). 9 reasons newspapers are suddenly asking print subscribers to pay for full Web access. Retrieved from https://www.poynter.org/news/9-reasons-newspapers-are-suddenly-asking-print-subscribers-pay-full-web-access

[38] Nicholls, T., Shabbir, N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2016). Digital-Born News Media in Europe.

[39] Pfauth, E.-J. (2016). Why Subscriptions are the Future of Journalism. (see footnote 26)

[40] Nienstedt, H.-W., Russ-Mohl, S., & Wilczek, B. (2013). Journalism and Media Convergence. Walter de Gruyter.

[41] Cook, J. E., & Attari, S. Z. (2012). Paying for What Was Free: Lessons from the New York Times Paywall. (see footnote 20)

[42] Fletcher, R., & Nielsen, R. K. (2017). Paying for Online News: A comparative analysis of six countries. (see footnote 30)

[43] Edmonds, R. (2011, August 4). 9 reasons newspapers are suddenly asking print subscribers to pay for full Web access. (see footnote 37)

[44] Fletcher, R., & Nielsen, R. K. (2017). Paying for Online News: A comparative analysis of six countries. (see footnote 30)

[45] Ibid.

[46] Lichterman, J. (2017, June 1). Here’s how this Norwegian publisher built a successful digital subscription model for local news. Nieman Lab. Retrieved from http://www.niemanlab.org/2017/05/heres-how-this-norwegian-publisher-built-a-successful-digital-subscription-model-for-local-news/

[47] Macnamara, J. (2010). Remodelling media: The urgent search for new media businness models. (see footnote 21)

[48] Future Business Models of Online Media. Retrieved from http://technoport.no/content/408/Future-Business-Models-of-Online-Media

[49] Kickstarter’s Drip takes on Patreon with subscription crowdfunding. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.engadget.com/2017/11/15/kickstarter-drip-patreon-subscription-crowdfunding/

[50] Future Business Models of Online Media. (see footnote 48)

[51] Pay Models in European News. (see footnote 7)

[52] Pfauth, E.-J. (2015, April 16). A short guide to crowdfunding journalism. Retrieved 7 January 2018, from https://medium.com/de-correspondent/a-short-guide-to-crowdfunding-journalism-b495ecba710

[53] Brandstetter, B., & Schmalhofer, J. (2014). Paid Content: A successful revenue model for publishing houses in Germany? Journalism Practice, 8(5), 499–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.895519

[54] Costa, C. T. (2013). A Business Model for Digital Journalism: How Newspapers should Embrace Technology, Social and Value Added Services (see footnote 9)

[55] Reynolds Journalism Institute (RJI). (16:43:59 UTC). Paid online Content: _Trends, best practices and strategies that fit. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/RJIonline/paid-contentmpa

[56] Pay Models in European News. (see footnote 7)

[57] The Business Model That Will Save Journalism. (2014, November 5). Retrieved from https://contently.com/strategist/2014/11/05/the-business-model-that-will-save-journalism/

A culture of clicks

How audience metrics can help online news editors, publishers and journalists become more successful

by Laura Vermeire

[1] Picard, R.G. (2014). Twilight or New Dawn of Journalism ? Digital Journalism, 2(3), 273–283. DOI : 10.1080/21670811.2014.895531

[2] MacGregor, P. (2007). Tracking the Online Audience. Journalism Studies, 8(2), 280–298. DOI : 10.1080/14616700601148879

[3] Kaushik, A., & Waisberg, D. (2009). Web Analytics 2.0: Empowering Customer Centricity. The original Search Engine Market Journal, 2(1), 5–11.

[4] Anderson, C. W. (2011). Deliberative, Antagonistic, and Algorithmic Audiences: Journalism’s Vision of its Public in an Age of Audience Transparency. International Journal of Communication, 5, 529–547. DOI: 1932–8036/20110529

[5] Anderson, C. W. (2011). Between Creative and Quantified Audiences: Web Metrics and Changing Patterns of Newsworks in Local US Newsrooms. Journalism, 12(5), 550. DOI: 10.1177/1464884911402451

[6] Boczkowski, P. (2004). Digitizing the News : Innovation in online newspapers. Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press.

[7] As cited in MacGregor, P. (2007). Tracking the online audience. Journalism Studies, 8(2), 282. DOI : 10.1080/14616700601148879

[8] Benson, R., & Neveu, E. (2005). Introduction: Field Theory as a Work in Progress. In R. Benson and E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field, 1–28. Malden, MA: Polity Press

[9] Tandoc, E. (2014). Journalism is twerking ? How web analytics is changing the process of gatekeeping. New Media & Society, 16(4), 559–575. DOI : 10.1177/1461444814530541

[10] Tandoc, E., & Vos, T. (2015). The Journalist is Marketing the News: Social Media in the Gatekeeping Process. Journalism Practice. DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2015.1087811

[11] Welbers, K., van Atteveldt, W., Kleinnijenhuis, J., Ruigrok, N., & Schaper, J. (2015). News selection criteria in the digital age : Professional norms versus online audience metrics. Journalism, 1–17. DOI. 10.1177/1464884915595474

[12] Tandoc, E. (2014). Journalism is twerking? (See footnote 9)

[13] MacGregor, P. (2007). Tracking the online audience. (See footnote 2)

[14] Tandoc, E. (2014). Journalism is twerking? (See footnote 9)

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Christin, A. (2014, August 28). When it comes to chasing clicks, journalists say one thing but feel pressure to do another. Niemanlab.org. Retrieved from www.niemanlab.org on 8 December 2016.

[18] Tandoc, E., & Thomas, R.J. (2015). The Ethics of Web Analytics: Implications of using audience metrics in news construction. Digital Journalism, 3(2), 243–258. DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2014.909122

[19] Ibid.

[20] Dewey, J. (1927). The Public and its Problems. New York: H. Holt & Co.

[21] Tandoc, E., & Thomas, R.J. (2015). The Ethics of Web Analytics. (See footnote 18).

[22] MacGregor, P. (2007). Tracking the online audience. (See footnote 2)

[23] Rosenstiel, T. (2016). Solving journalism’s hidden problem: Terrible analytics. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/solving-journalisms-hidden-problem-terrible-analytics/

[24] Lichterman, J. (2015, January 29). Constantly tweaking: How The Guardian continues to develop its in-house analytics system. Niemanlab.org. Retrieved from http://www.niemanlab.org/2015/01/constantly-tweaking-how-the-guardian-continues-to-develop-its-in-house-analytics-system/ on 8 January 2017.

[25] Cherubini, F., & Nielsen, R. K. (2016). Digital News Project 2016. Editorial Analytics: how news media are developing and using audience data and metrics. Retrieved from http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/news/editorial-analytics-news-organisations-embracing-analytics-and-metrics-most-have-far-go

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Tandoc, E., & Ferrucci, P. (2015). A tale of two newsrooms: How market orientation influences web analytics use. In W. Gibbs, & J. McKendrick (Eds.), Contemporary Research Methods and Data Analytics in the News Industry, 58–76. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978–1–4666–8580–2.ch004

[31] Cherubini, F., & Nielsen, R. K. (2016). Digital News Project 2016. (See footnote 24).

[32] Ibid.

[33] Speaking in Paris at the Sciences Po’ Journalism School Conference in Dec. 2015, as cited in Cherubni, F., & Nielsen, R.K. (2016). Digital News Project 2016, p.32. (See footnote 24)

[34] Waisberg, D., & Kaushik, A. (2009). Web Analytics 2.0. (see footnote 3)

[35] Tandoc, E., & Thomas, R.J. (2015). The Ethics of Web Analytics. (See footnote 18)

[36] Rosenstiel, T. (2016). Solving journalism’s hidden problem. (See footnote 23)

[37] Rosenstiel, T. (2016). Solving journalism’s hidden problem. (See footnote 23)

[39] Bartlett, R. (2013, December 2017). The Forbes ‘feedback loop’: Web analytics in the newsroom. Journalism.co.uk. Retrieved from https://www.journalism.co.uk on 8 December 2016.

[40] Vu, H. T., (2014). The online audience as gatekeeper: The influence of reader metrics on news editorial selection. Journalism, 15(8), 1094–1110. DOI: 10.1177/1464884913504259.

I, (Robo-) journalist.

Entering the Era of Automated Journalism: Challenges, Concerns, Opportunities

by Lora Ivanova

[2] Pavlik, J. (2000). The impact of technology on journalism. Journalism Studies, 1(2), 229–237, p. 229.

[3] BBC College of Journalism. (2009). The Future of Journalism. Papers from a conference organised by the BBC College of Journalism. CoJo Publications 1.

[4] Ombelet, P. J., Kuczerawy, A., & Valcke, P. (April 13, 2016). Supervising automated journalists in the newsroom: liability for algorithmically produced news stories. KU Leuven Centre for IT & IP Law. Working Paper 25/2016.

[5] Bennett Ch. (2015). AP modernizes with robojournalism. Newspapers & Technology, November/December 2015, p. 1.

[4] Ombelet, P. J., Kuczerawy, A., & Valcke, P. (April 13, 2016). Supervising automated journalists in the newsroom: liability for algorithmically produced news stories. KU Leuven Centre for IT & IP Law. Working Paper 25/2016.

[7] Clerwall, C. (2014). Enter the Robot Journalist: Users’ perceptions of automated content. Journalism Practice, 8(5), 519–531, p.

[8] Lokot, T., & Diakopoulos, N. (2015). News Bots: Automating news and information dissemination on Twitter. Digital Journalism, 1–18., p. 2

[9] Bennett Ch. (2015). AP modernizes with robojournalism. Newspapers & Technology, November/December 2015, p. 1.

[10] Ibid.

[11] The Week. (May 18, 2016). The Guardian job cuts ‘worrying for journalism.’ Retrieved from: goo.gl/DNrtcD

[12] Reuters. (January 18, 2016). 4 out of 10 millennials fear robots, here’s why. Retrieved from: goo.gl/O3Xv2m

[13] Van Dalen, A. (2012). The algorithms behind the headlines. Journalistic practice, 6(5–6).

[14] Glaser M. (August 23, 2007). Traditional Journalism Job Cuts Countered by Digital Additions. Retrieved from: goo.gl/97gmKh

[15] Finberg H. (April 9, 2014). Journalism needs the right skills to survive. Poynter. Retrieved from: goo.gl/LNqoUu

[16] Dvorkin L. (September 16, 2009). Inviting the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Journalist. NemanReports. Retrieved from: goo.gl/9GQ8GF

[17] Ombelet, P. J. (2015). REVEAL blog: Send in the Robots: Automated Journalism and its Potential Impact on Media Pluralism.

[18] Desilva M. (October 9, 2013). The Debate of Technology and Design is Just Like the Debate on Han and Egg. Retrieved from: goo.gl/HZj3dv

[19] Bennett Ch. (2015). AP modernizes with robojournalism. Newspapers & Technology, November/December 2015, p. 2.

[20] Ombelet, P. J., Kuczerawy, A., & Valcke, P. (April 13, 2016). Supervising automated journalists in the newsroom: liability for algorithmically produced news stories. KU Leuven Centre for IT & IP Law. Working Paper 25/2016.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Knapton S. (February 13, 2016). Robots will take over most jobs within 30 years, experts warn. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: goo.gl/7yIchr

[23] Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation. Retrieved September, 7, 2013

[24] Freeman E. (November 8, 2016). Mark Cuban explains why he revoked ESPN reporters’ credentials. Retrieved from: goo.gl/rM510s

[25] Smith, A., & Anderson, J. (2014). AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs. Pew Research Center, p. 10

[26] Wakefield J. (September 14, 2015). Intelligent Machines: The jobs robots will steal first. BBC News. Retrieved from: goo.gl/MNViJg

[27] Radcliffe D. (July 7, 2016). The Upsides (and Downsides) of Automated Robot Journalism. Mediashift. Retrieved from: goo.gl/M0Uc6Z

[28] Lichterman J. (October 31, 2016). The AP wants to use machine learning to automate turning print stories into broadcast ones. NiemandLab. Retrieved from: goo.gl/bhedL2

[29] Ibid.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Cohen, Nicole S. “Entrepreneurial journalism and the precarious state of media work.” South Atlantic Quarterly 114.3 (2015): 513–533.

[32] Spitzer, B., Morel, V., Buvat, J., & Kvj, S. (2013). The digital talent gap: Developing skills for today’s digital organizations. Capgemini Consulting, p.3

[33] Roose K. (July 11, 2014). Robots Are Invading the News Business, and It’s Great for Journalists. New York Magazine. Retrieved: goo.gl/1phcJk

[34] Radcliffe D. (July 7, 2016). The Upsides (and Downsides) of Automated Robot Journalism. Mediashift. Retrieved from: goo.gl/M0Uc6Z

[35] Bennett Ch. (2015). AP modernizes with robojournalism. Newspapers & Technology, November/December 2015, p. 1.

[36]Graefe, A. (2016). Guide to automated journalism. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. Janeiro, p. 20

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Smith, A., & Anderson, J. (2014). AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs. Pew Research Center, p. 8

[40] Ombelet, P. J. (2015). REVEAL blog: Send in the Robots: Automated Journalism and its Potential Impact on Media Pluralism.

Mobile war reporting through live streaming

What war reporting on social media can learn journalists about building live audiences

by Elly Vansevenant

[1] Allan, S., & Thorsen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Citizen journalism: Global perspectives (Vol. 1). Peter Lang, p.76.

[2] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p. 2.

[3] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.14.

[4] Westlund, O. (2011). Cross-media news work-Sensemaking of the mobile Media (R) evolution, p.16.

[5] Bell, E. (2016, 17 July). The unpredictable course of live streaming has caught us unprepared. The Guardian. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jul/17/live-streaming-violent-events-crisis-facebook

[6] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.1.

[7] Wikipedia, (2017, 24 November). Mobile reporting [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_reporting

[8] Goujard, C. (2016, 26 November). Mobile Journalism: Defining a New Storytelling Language [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th , 2018 via http://mediashift.org/2016/11/mobile-journalism-defining-new-storytelling-language/

[9] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.16.

[10] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.5.

[11] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[12] Matheson, D., & Allan, S. (2009). Digital war reporting. Polity, p.64.

[13] Think you know. (s.d.). What is live streaming? [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/articles/what-is-live-streaming/

[14] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[15] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.18.

[16] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.34.

[17] Farinosi, M., & Treré, E. (2014). Challenging mainstream media, documenting real life and sharing with the community: An analysis of the motivations for producing citizen journalism in a post-disaster city. Global media and communication, 10(1), p.74.

[18] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.51.

[19] Bell, E. (2016, 17 juli). The unpredictable course of live streaming has caught us unprepared. The Guardian. Consulted on 8 januari, 2018 via https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jul/17/live-streaming-violent-events-crisis-facebook

[20] Carr, D. (2014, 27 juli). At front lines, bearing witness in real time. The New York Times. Consulted on 9 januari, 2018 via https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/28/business/media/at-front-lines-bearing-witness-in-real-time.html

[21] Chrisope, A. (2016, 10 november). War now coming to you live on Facebook [webpage]. Consulted on 9 januari, 2018 via http://www.ttuhub.net/2016/11/war-now-coming-to-you-live-on-facebook/

[22] Idem footnote 20

[23] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.6.

[24] Krikke, J. (2004). Streaming video transforms the media industry. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24(4), 6–12.

[25] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.2.

[26] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th , 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[27] Picard, R. G. (2014). Twilight or new dawn of journalism? Evidence from the changing news ecosystem. Journalism studies, 15(5), p.274.

[28] Allan, S., & Thorsen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Citizen journalism: Global perspectives (Vol. 1). Peter Lang, p.44.

[29] Westlund, O. (2011). Cross-media news work-Sensemaking of the mobile Media (R) evolution, p.4.

[30] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.6.

[31] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.6.

[32] Westlund, O. (2011). Cross-media news work-Sensemaking of the mobile Media (R) evolution, p.4.

[33] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.1.

[34] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.3.

[35] See footnote 33

[36] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.5.

[37] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.14.

[38] See footnote 34

[39] Krikke, J. (2004). Streaming video transforms the media industry. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24(4), 6–12.

[40] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.3.

[41] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.63.

[42] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[43] Matheson, D., & Allan, S. (2009). Digital war reporting. Polity, p.70.

[44] Admin, R. (s.d.). How mobile phones are changing journalism practice in the 21st century [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/risj-review/how-mobile-phones-are-changing-journalism-practice-21st-century

[45] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[46] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.52.

[47] See footnote 45

[48] Blake, H. (2013, 12 June). War reporting and the rise of citizen journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://www.securityintransition.org/commentaries/war-reporting-and-the-rise-of-citizen-journalism/

[49] Farinosi, M., & Treré, E. (2014). Challenging mainstream media, documenting real life and sharing with the community: An analysis of the motivations for producing citizen journalism in a post-disaster city. Global media and communication, 10(1), p.76.

[50] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.37.

[51] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.19.

[52] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[53] Väätäjä, H., Vainio, T., Sirkkunen, E., & Salo, K. (2011, August). Crowdsourced news reporting: supporting news content creation with mobile phones. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (pp. 435–444). ACM.

[54] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.64

[55] Eyewitness Media Hub. (s.d.). Executive Summary [webpage]. Consulted on 9 januari, 2018 via http://eyewitnessmediahub.com/research//vicarious-trauma/executive-summary

[56] Wardle, C. (2016, 24 October). Mosul streams raise concerns about Facebook Live [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via https://www.cjr.org/tow_center/mosul_streams_facebook_live.php

[57] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.73.

[58] Admin, R. (s.d.). How mobile phones are changing journalism practice in the 21st century [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/risj-review/how-mobile-phones-are-changing-journalism-practice-21st-century

[59] Goujard, C. (2016, 26 November). Mobile Journalism: Defining a New Storytelling Language [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via http://mediashift.org/2016/11/mobile-journalism-defining-new-storytelling-language/

[60] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[61] Shanley, M. (2012, 2 October). Live from Syria: Swedish streaming site gains followers [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sweden-bambuser/live-from-syria-swedish-streaming-site-gains-followers-idUSBRE8910D620121002

[62] Think you know. (s.d.). What is live streaming? [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/articles/what-is-live-streaming/

[63] Idem footnote 61

[64] Matheson, D., & Allan, S. (2009). Digital war reporting. Polity, p.68.

[65] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[66] See footnote 61

[67] WOWZA media systems. (2017). The Facebook live streaming benchmark report 2017 [webdocument]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.wowza.com/uploads/images/UPDATE-The_Facebook_Live_Streaming_Benchmark_Report_2017.pdf?submissionGuid=76e8eb3f-611a-46c1-bcd1-4874b7e3ac6d

[68] Admin, R. (s.d.). How mobile phones are changing journalism practice in the 21st century [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/risj-review/how-mobile-phones-are-changing-journalism-practice-21st-century

[69] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[70] Jacobsen, J. (s.d.). Up close and personal? Mobile journalist Twan Spierts on reporting with smartphones [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://onlinejournalismblog.com/2017/09/28/twan-spierts-mobile-journalism-tips/

[71] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[72] Jacobsen, J. (s.d.). Up close and personal? Mobile journalist Twan Spierts on reporting with smartphones [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://onlinejournalismblog.com/2017/09/28/twan-spierts-mobile-journalism-tips/

[73] Israele, E. (2017, 22 February). Get camera ready: Live streaming is the future of social media [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.business.com/articles/why-live-streaming-is-the-future-of-social-media/

[74] Idem footnote 70

[75] See footnote 71

[76] Shih-Wey, C. (2016, 16 februari). Citizen journalists report Syria conflict to world [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via http://globaljournalist.org/2016/02/citizen-journalists-report-syria-conflict-to-world/

[77] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[78] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[79] Matheson, D., & Allan, S. (2009). Digital war reporting. Polity, p.68.

[80] Zak, E. (2011, 29 August). 5 things a smartphone can’t replace for a journalist [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://www.adweek.com/digital/5-things-a-smartphone-cant-replace-for-a-journalist/?red=kw

[81] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.4.

[82] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.38.

[83] Jacobsen, J. (s.d.). Up close and personal? Mobile journalist Twan Spierts on reporting with smartphones [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://onlinejournalismblog.com/2017/09/28/twan-spierts-mobile-journalism-tips/

[84] Zulu B. (2008, 9 September). Despite potential, mobile reporting still faces challenges [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.networkworld.com/article/2276191/network-security/despite-potential--mobile-reporting-still-faces-challenges.html

[85] Corrick, K. (2011, 16 April). Workshop: introduction to using mobiles for reporting [webdocument]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://kathryncorrick.co.uk/2011/04/16/international-journalism-festival-perugia-presentations/

[86] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[87] Tarabay, J. (2015, 2 February). War reporters know that covering conflict can come at a price [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/2/2/war-reporting-comes-at-a-price.html

[88] See footnote 86

[89] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[90] Admin, R. (s.d.). How mobile phones are changing journalism practice in the 21st century [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018 via https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/risj-review/how-mobile-phones-are-changing-journalism-practice-21st-century

[91] Jacobsen, J. (s.d.). Up close and personal? Mobile journalist Twan Spierts on reporting with smartphones [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th 7 januari, 2018 via https://onlinejournalismblog.com/2017/09/28/twan-spierts-mobile-journalism-tips/

[92] See footnote 89

[93] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.28.

[94] Hänska-Ahy, M. T., & Shapour, R. (2013). WHO’S REPORTING THE PROTESTS? Converging practices of citizen journalists and two BBC World Service newsrooms, from Iran’s election protests to the Arab uprisings. Journalism studies, 14(1), p.12.

[95] Zak, E. (2011, 29 August). 5 things a smartphone can’t replace for a journalist [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://www.adweek.com/digital/5-things-a-smartphone-cant-replace-for-a-journalist/?red=kw

[96] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.67.

[97] Bell, E. (2016, 17 July). The unpredictable course of live streaming has caught us unprepared. The Guardian. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jul/17/live-streaming-violent-events-crisis-facebook

[98] Wardle, C. (2016, 24 October). Mosul streams raise concerns about Facebook Live [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via https://www.cjr.org/tow_center/mosul_streams_facebook_live.php

[99] Lowe, C. (2012, 30 June). Syria: A War Reported By Citizen-Journalists, Social Media [webpage]. Consulted on January 6th, 2018, via https://www.rferl.org/a/syria-war-reported-by-citizen-journalists-social-media/24630841.html

[100] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.34.

[101] Vercias K. & Mechael P. (2008, November). A mobile voice: the use of mobile phone in citizen media [webdocument]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadn040.pdf

[102] Blake, H. (2013, 12 June). War reporting and the rise of citizen journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://www.securityintransition.org/commentaries/war-reporting-and-the-rise-of-citizen-journalism/

[103] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[104] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.5.

[105] Chrisope, A. (2016, 10 November). War now coming to you live on Facebook [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via http://www.ttuhub.net/2016/11/war-now-coming-to-you-live-on-facebook/

[106] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.69.

[107] Tompkins, A. (2016, 8 juli). 10 questions journalists should ask themselves before going live on Facebook [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.poynter.org/news/10-questions-journalists-should-ask-themselves-going-live-facebook

[108] Matheson, D., & Allan, S. (2009). Digital war reporting. Polity, p.57.

[109] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.1.

[110] Think you know. (s.d.). What is live streaming? [webpage]. Consulted on 7 januari, 2018 via https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/articles/what-is-live-streaming/

[111] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.18.

[112] Tenwolde, S. J. (2010). Mobile Citizen Journalism in Sub-Sahara Africa (Master’s thesis), p.34.

[113] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.2.

[114] Allan, S., & Thorsen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Citizen journalism: Global perspectives (Vol. 1). Peter Lang, p.44.

[115] Westlund, O. (2011). Cross-media news work-Sensemaking of the mobile Media (R) evolution, p.4.

[116] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.6.

[117] Umair, S. (2016). Mobile Reporting and Journalism for Media Trends, News Transmission and its Authenticity. Journal of mass communication & journalism, 6(9), p.3.

[118] Westlund, O. (2013). Mobile news: A review and model of journalism in an age of mobile media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), p.17.

[119] Hain, F. (2016, 15 June). Streaming the news: the opportunities and dangers of live streaming for journalism [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via http://emergencyjournalism.net/streaming-the-news-the-opportunities-and-dangers-of-live-streaming-for-journalism/

[120] Shanley, M. (2012, 2 October). Live from Syria: Swedish streaming site gains followers [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sweden-bambuser/live-from-syria-swedish-streaming-site-gains-followers-idUSBRE8910D620121002

[121] Think you know. (s.d.). What is live streaming? [webpage]. Consulted on January 7th, 2018 via https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/articles/what-is-live-streaming/

[122] See footnote 120

[123] Israele, E. (2017, 22 February). Get camera ready: Live streaming is the future of social media [webpage]. Consulted on January 8th, 2018 via https://www.business.com/articles/why-live-streaming-is-the-future-of-social-media/

[124] Hänska-Ahy, M. T., & Shapour, R. (2013). WHO’S REPORTING THE PROTESTS? Converging practices of citizen journalists and two BBC World Service newsrooms, from Iran’s election protests to the Arab uprisings. Journalism studies, 14(1), P.6–7.

[125] Reading, A. (2009). Mobile witnessing: Ethics and the camera phone in the ‘war on terror’. Globalizations, 6(1), p.67.

[126] Chrisope, A. (2016, 10 November). War now coming to you live on Facebook [webpage]. Consulted on January 9th, 2018 via http://www.ttuhub.net/2016/11/war-now-coming-to-you-live-on-facebook/