Weekly Journal (12)

November 8

Oiktas/ “Oiktista”-pity

Katharsos Thanatos- Clean Death, Pure Death

Kuon- Dog

Book 24 Odyssey

-Odysseus did consider that the repercussions for killing the suitors make arise faster than what he can handle.

-The overall mood of book 24 was erratic. When the suitors are lead to the Underworld by Hermes, they encounter Achilles and Agamemnon. Although they blame Penelope for their death, I found a bit of humor out of the situation. Agamemnon credits Penelope for being loyal, unlike his wife Clytemnestra. The mood shifts to happiness when Odysseus is able to reunite with his father Laertes. It is really a tear-jerking moment. The mood shifts yet again when we read about the parents of the suitors attempting to find and kill Odysseus. Things come to a boiling point when Eupithes is killed (seemed like the typical situation where the older man figures that they can do more damage that when they really can do, and it backfires), but then things cool off once Athena steps in with her pleas for peace.

Similarities

-War/Battle has just finished

-Similar characters:

1. Agamemnon

2. Achilles

3. Odysseus

-Athena prevents blood from being shed

-Both written by Homer

-Both envoke Muse

The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Book 1 Illiad

-The Achaeans did not fear any repercussions from anyone until Agamemnon found out about the Plague

-The mood in the Illiad starts out positive, and almost exciting. Agamememnon and Achilles have successfully kidnapped Breseis and Chryseis. They fighters all seem to be getting along swimmingly. But once Apollo sends the plague, the mood does a 180-degree turn. Things then stay depressing for most of the book. Agamemnon engages in an argument about the possession of Breseis. Agamemnon’s greed almost forces Achilles to attack him, as he does not want to have to give up Breseis. Athena assists the young Nestor in preventing the argument from becoming more intense.

Exam 2 Prep

Homer’s Odyssey

-Odysseus: Protagonist in the Odyssey. Husband of Penelope, and the father of Telemachus. For some reason he is favored by Athena, but hated by Poseidon.

-We see that he is stuck on the island of Ogygia with Calypso who loves him dearly (book 1).

-Spends 18 days at sea after being released from Calypso, and finally locates the land of the Phaeaceans.

-Is shipwrecked by the storm of Poseidon, but protected by the vail of Calypso. He then encounters Nausicaa at the river, and receives directions to the city of the Phaeaceans (book 6)

-Quickly visited and led by Athena to the Palace on Scheria, before she leaves to Athens. He reaches the Palace and instantly worships the queen. They are both wary of his identity at first, but he explains that he is a mortal that means not harm. When he questioned by Arete about the clothing he is wearing, he explains the details surrounding his journey (book 7)

-Breaks down twice when hearing Demondocus sing about the battle of Troy. He breezes through the discuss toss, and feeling bold, challenges any Phaeacean to any competition. At the dinner, he begins to tell Alcinous his real story (book 8)

-Odysseus begins telling his story of the full extent of his travels. He travels from Troy, to Cicones. At Cicones , Odysseus and his men become extremely sidetracked, and he is forced to lock them up in order to get them off the island. He and his men then encounter Polyphemus in the land of the Cyclopes. Polyphemus first shows Xenia, but later turns on Odysseus and his men, and eats two of them. The next day, Odysseus devises a plan to escape. He gets Polyphemus drunk and when he asks him what his name was, Odysseus replies with “nobody.” When Polythemus is fully asleep, Odysseus drives a piece of wood through his eye, blinding him. As he and his men are escaping he reveals his true identity to Polyphemus (book 9)

-He and presented a bag of all winds from Aeolus. These winds were to serve as a guide back to Ithaca. He and his men then travel to Aeaea, which is where Circe resides. She turns Odysseus’s men into pigs after drugging them. After receiving the “moly” advice from Hermes, and is able to force Circe to turn his men back into men. Perhaps like any good story, the two fall in love. After a year, he asks Circe for directions to Ithaca. She tells him to see Tiresias. This is good news, but the death of his man Elpenor, was not (book 10)

-He speaks with Tiresias and finds out why him and his men are being punished. HE also speaks to his mother Anticleia who tells him about the current state of Ithaca (book 11)

-Returns to Aeaea annd reunites with Circe. He learns of the obstacles he will face on his journey home. He first passes the island of the Sirens, who sing a song promising to tell him of the future. Once past that, he encounters and must get through Scylla (six-headed monster that swallows ships), and Charybdis (a whirlpool). He chooses Scylla and looses six men. They make it through and reaches Thrinacia, the island of the sun. Odysseus’s men, led by Eurylochus decide to slaughter the cattle of the sun after being marooned for a month. The sun finds out and alerts Zeus who creates another storm that destroys his ship. He survives and manages to float to Ogygia where he encouters Calypso (book 12)

-Once he reaches Ithaca, he does not recognize the land. He decides to live incognito until the perfect time to reveal identity (book 13)

-He travels to and finds Eumaeus outside of his hut. Despite not recognizing the man, Eumaeus feeds Odysseus large meal and tells him stories of his old master. He tells Eumaeus that he is from Crete and that he fought with Odysseus at troy (book 14)

-Still with Eumaeus. He hopes that Eumaeus will allow him to stay which of course, he does. Eumaeus also warns Odysseus of the suitors and their strength (book 15)

-Assumes his regular form, and embraces with Telemachus. Then the two devise a pan to kill the suitors (book 16)

-He and Eumaeus begin to head towards the palace. They encounter Melanthius who takes aim at them. When they finally reach the palace, the disrespect continues. Antinous insults Odysseus and Odysseus fires one back. This angers Antinous, so he hits Odysseus with a stool (book 17).

-Iros-Other beggar that challenges Odysseus. Ends up wanting back down after Odysseus rips shirt off. Gets knocked out and warns Amphinomos (book 18)

-Assumes the name Aithon when speaking with Penelope in his beggar disguise.

-He tells Penelope that her lord will return tomorrow. She responds with a competition to string Odysseus bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axes, he tells her that her lord will be at the competition (book 19)

-Wakes up on the day of the competition and prays to Zeus for good omen. He and Telemachus go to the Palace of Springs, only to be confronted by the suitors. Ctesippus throws a cow hoof at Odysseus, which starts an argument causing Telemachus to pull his sword (book 20)

-Asks for the bow. The suitors taunt him. Antious calls him crazy like the drunken centaur Eurytion. He easily strings the bow and hits the twelve axes. (book 21)

-Turns and shoots arrow through the neck of Antious, thereafter he reveals his real identity. The suitors get scared and try to flee but can’t (Philoetius locks front door, Eumaeus locks door to women’s quarters) (book 21)

-Odysseus hits Eurymachus with an arrow and engages fully In battle, killing many of the suitors. He spares the herald Mendon and the minstrel Phemius (book 22)

-Gets very angry when he is told by Penelope that he must sleep on the bed outside of the room. Things improve when she realizes who he is. He then wakes up in the morning and decides to take a trip to see his father laertes. He tells the women to lock themselves upstairs and he sets out wit Telemachus and the herdsman (with the protection of a cloud in the shape of travelers) (book 23)

-Assumes the name Quarrelman when discussing whom he was with his father, before he tells him who he really is (book 24).

-Telemachus: ~Twenty Son of Odysseus and Penelope. Though he was only an infant when Odysseus left, he feels a close connection to his father. He is the natural enemy of the Suitors as he hopes his father will one day return.

-He hears from Athena (in the form of Mentes) that his father is indeed returning home. He then goes to his mother whom he finds in the suitors’ quarters. She is in there complaining about a song that reminded her of Odysseus, which causes him to get angry. He snaps at his mother reminding her that many other fighters were slain during battle, and that she should just return to her own quarters. He also tells the suitors what is happening (book 1).

-He calls a meeting in the town. He uses the time to express his feeling about what has happened since his father has been gone. He scolds the suitors for taking over his father palace, and consuming his father’s oxen and sheep. He also scoffs at them for continuously attempting to pursue his mother.

-Travels to Pylos with Mentor (Athena), and encounters a ceremony where Bulls are being sacrificed in Poseidon’s honor. Despite being a terrible public speaker, he gathers enough courage to ask Nestor if he has seen his father (book 3)

-Travels to Sparta, and encounters Menelaus. Encounters him when he is having celebrations for his children. He hears that he is abandoned on Ogygia and then he sets sail back to Pylos in order to return home to Ithaca (book 4)

-Gets word from Athena, and travels back to Pylos where he drops off Pisistratus. He catches a ride with Theoclymenus and returns home to Ithaca (book 15)

-Travels to the hut of Eumaeus and find him talking to the Shepherd (Odysseus in disguise). He does not want to bring the shepherd to stay with him because he fears the suitors. Once Odysseus re-enters the tent, he realizes who he is and the two embrace then devise a plan to kill the suitors (book 16)

-Leaves Odysseus at Eumaeus’s hut and goes to meet Theoclymenus and Piraeus. While talking to them, he tells them not to bring out any of the gifts from Menelaus because of the greedy suitors. After a gracious welcome from Penelope and Eurycleia, he sits down with Penelope and lies to her when asked about information regarding his father. Theoclymenus nearly blows his cover (book 17)

-Accompanies Odysseus to the Palace of Springs, and nearly spears Ctesippus (book 20)

-Spears Amphinomus. He then goes to retrieve more swords and shields from the storage room but forgets to lock the door. Though he was instructed to cut them down, he decides to hang the disloyal servant women (book 22)

-Nestor: King of Pylos

-Is visited by Telemachus. Tells him that he has not seen Odysseus since Troy, and that he has heard that the suitors have taken over his homestead. He then sends his son Pisistratus to accompany Telemachus to Sparta. (book 3)

-Peisistratus: Youngest son of Nestor

-Accompanies Telemachus on his travels after meeting in Pylos (book 3).

-Accompanies Telemachus on his travels to Sparta, then back to Pylos (book .

-Menelaus: King of Sparta (book 4)

-Found by Telemachus and Pisistratus when he and his wife are celebrating the marriages of their children. He recognizes Telemachus as the son of Odysseus and offers him shelter. He then alerts Telemachus of his fathers whereabouts (Ogygia) (book 4)

-Helen: Queen of Sparta and wife of Menelaus.

-Appears with Menelaus (book 4)

-Penelope: Wife of Odysseus. Constantly avoiding suitors with the hopes of one day being reunited with Odysseus.

-Is found by Telemachus complaining about a song being played in the suitor’s quarters (book 1).

-Medon alerts her of her son’s travels through the sea and she becomes very scared. She fears that she will not lose both her husband and son (book 4)

-She hears about the violence and summons the man to her quarters. She has questions about her lost husband and she hopes the man can help (book 17)

-She begins to confide in the beggar (whom she does not know is Odysseus). Tells him she misses her husband, and that if he does not return home soon she will marry a suitor, and that she will be holding a competition to see who deserved her most. She convinces the beggar to introduce himself. Odysseus tells her that his name is Aithon and that he’s is from Crete and that he hosted her husband (book 19).

-The competition (string bow and shoot through 12 axes) commences and all of the suitors fail. When Eurymachus has the bow he gets discouraged. Antious suggests that they defer until they can summon Apollo the archer god (book 21)

-She refuses to believe what Eurycleia tells her. As a test, she tells Odysseus to sleep on the bed outside of the room. This angers Odysseus becuses He built his bed around an Olive tree so it couldn’t be moved. She then realizes that it is him, and they make love (book 23)

-Eurycleia: Eldery but loyal servant whom has served both Odysseus and Telemachus since they were newborns. She is close to Odysseus and keeps his palace in order.

-Attempts to convince Telemachus not to set put at sea, because he will meet the same fate of his father (book 2).

-Hides the maids in the room in order to keep situation in order. Under orders, she begins to bath him (foot wash). She notices his scar (hunting on Mt. Parnassos with grandfather Autolykos where he was gashed by a boar) and realizes who he is, but vows to stay quiet after Odysseus chokes her (book 19)

-Tells Penelope what happens with the suitors (book 23)

-Melanthius: Goatherd that anatogizes Odysseus and supports the Suitors, particularly Eurymachus.

-Takes aim at both Eumaeus as they are travelling to the Palace of Penelope and Odysseus (book 17)

-Reaches the storage room but get captured by Eumaeus and Philoetius (book 22)

-Antinous: The most arrogant of Penelope’s suitors. He is the main suitor attempting to get Telemachus killed, and he is rarely thoughtful or sympathetic.

-He and Eurymachus begin to argue with Telemachus asking him who he was just getting this information from. They both assume that is was a god/goddess in disguise but they could not prove it (book 1).

-He snaps back at Telemachus, blaming Penelope for continuously leading on he and his fellow suitors. He claims that if Penelops refuses to get married, she should get sent back to her father to make the decision for her (book 2).

-Devises a plan to kill Telemachus, but is later barked at for even considering it (book 16)

-Bullies both Odysseus and Eumaeus and Odysseus as they walk through the palace. He insults Odysseus and Odysseus fires one back. This angers Antinous, so he hits Odysseus with a stool (book 17).

-Threatens to castrate Iros if he did not fight (book 18)

-Suggests that the competition be paused until they can summon Apollo)

-He is shot in the throat by Odysseus (book 22).

-Eupeithes: Father of Antinous

-Killed after unting down Odysseus to Laertes’ house.He falls to the spear of Laertes (book 24)

-Eurymachus: Manipulative suitor that gains a small amount of power over others.

-He and Antinous begin to argue with Telemachus asking him who he was just getting this information from. They both assume that is was a god/goddess in disguise but they could not prove it (book 1)

-He hurls a footstool at Odysseus and spills wine in the halls (book 18)

-Pleas to Odysseus saying that Antious was the only bad suitor, but does not succeed. He then charges Odysseus but falls to an arrow (book 22).

-Amphinomus: The one suitor whom wanted to marry Penelope.

-Prevents Antinous from actually going through with his plan to kill Telemachus (book 16)

-Killed by the spear of Telemachus (book 22)

-Agelaus: One of the suitors.

-Attempted to coerce Telemachus into allowing him to marry Penelope (book 11).

-Poseidon: God of the sea, patron of the Phaceans, and Odysseus’s divine antagonist. He hates Odysseus for blinding Polyphemus.

-After returning from the land of the Ethiopians, Poseidon calls for a storm that is meant to shipwreck Odysseus (book 5)

-He sees that Odysseus has made it back to Ithaca safely with the help of the Phaeaceans. This angers him, and he asks Zeus if he can take revenge on them. The prophecy at the end of book 8 is fulfilled. The ship turns to stone and sinks. Onlookers see that and freak out (book 13)

-Calypso: Sea nymph who is prized for her beauty. She falls in love with Odysseus.

-She is the beautiful sea-nymph who has Odysseus trapped on her island of Ogygia (book 1).

-Receives a visit from Hermes. Aruges that the male gods are all allowed to take mortal lovers and companions, while the females are left to deal with the double standard. In the end, she gives in and assists in building a boat for Odysseus. She then saves Odysseus from a storm the Poseidon erupts, by giving him a protective vail. (book 5)

-Polyphemus: Cyclops, and son of Poseidon.

-Encounters Odysseus and his men within the land of the Cyclopes. At first he is hospitable, but then decides to turn on them. He chooses to eat two of Odysseus people, and imprison the rest of the travelers. Perhaps underestimating them, the next day he decides to consume wine alongside Odysseus. He gets drunk and pays with his eye. As he is cursing Odysseus for the terrible pain he is in, he calls upon his father Poseidon to assist in the destruction of Odysseus (book 9)

-Circe: Witch-goddess, whom Odysseus encounters in his travels.

-Encounters Odysseus and immediately attacks him and his men. She first drugs his men, before turning them into pigs. Eventually she is overpowered by Odysseus, whom she falls in love with. After spending a year together, she tells him that he needs to go to the underworld to talk with Tiresias in order to get home (book 10)

-Tells Odysseus of the obstacles he will face on the way home (book 12)

-Eumaeus: The loyal shepherd and friend of Odysseus

-Odysseus finds him outside of his hut. He offers Odysseus a hefty meal, despite not knowing who exactly he was. He cannot help but tell stories of his former master, and when he is told that he will see him again soon, he disputes that idea. Nonetheless, he assist Odysseus (who is disguised as a beggar) by feeding and sheltering him (book 14).

-Allows Odysseus to stay longer and warns him of the suitors and their danger (book 15)

-Goes to tell Penelope that her son has returned from his travels. Unfortunately for him and everyone else, the word has already spread and the suitors have been alerted (book 16)

Philoetius: The loyal cowherd and friend of Odysseus

-Athena: Daughter of Zeus, whom assists Odysseus throughout his journey back to Ithaca. She usually appears in the form of Mentor or Mentes, both longtime friends of Odysseus.

-Appeals to Zeus and tells him to stop focusing on Orestes. She convinces him that he needs to be paying more attention her favorite mortal hero, Odysseus, whom has been trying to return to his homeland of Ithaca for a decade. She asks Zeus to assist and with his permission, she travels to Ithaca. When in Ithaca, she assumes the form of Mentes and predicts that Odysseus has not been killed and that he will return home. She convinces Telemachus to travel to both Pylos and Sparta to ask of his father, but only after he tell the suitors of the situation at hand (book 1).

-Appears in the form of Mentor and alerts Telemachus of the obstacles he will face at sea. Coincidently, she leaves town in the form of Telemachus (book 2).

-Travels with Telemachus to Pylos, disguised as Mentor. When leaving Pylos, she takes the form of an Eagle (book 3).

-Meets with all the other gods on Mt. Olympus. She convinces Zeus that Odysseus has suffered long enough and that he should be allowed to return home. She then protects him from the storm that Poseidon causes. (book 5).

-Appears in Nausicaa’s dream, and convinces her to go to the river the following day (book 6).

-Pays Odysseus a visit on his way to the palace on Scheria. She baths Odysseus in a mist that will protect him from the biases on the Phaecaeans. She then goes to Athens (book 7)

-Returns from Athens and ensures that people attend the meeting called by Alcinous (book 8)

-Disguised as a shepherd, she alerts Odysseus of his whereabouts. She also tells him that it is time to get revenge on the suitors. She tells him to hide while she alerts Telemachus and Eumaeus (book 14)

-Travels to Sparta to find Telemachus. She finds him and Pisistratus and she tells him that he must return to Ithaca to combat the suitors and prevent them from successfully marrying his mother. She also tells him to visit Eumaeus so he can relay the message to Penelope, that Odysseus has returned (book 15)

-Appears outside the hut and turns Odysseus into his natural form (book 16)

-Gives Odysseus extra strength when fighting Iros (book 18)

-Keeps suitors antagonistic, to keep Odysseus angry (book 20)

-Reappears in the form of Mentor, and after a while joins the battle (book 22)

-Stops battle at Laertes house and makes the Ithacans rejoice Odysseus as king (book 24)

-Zeus: Father of Athena and ruler of all things holy “I swear to Zeus!” Periodically assists both Athena and Odysseus.

-Agrees to send Hermes to Calypso (book 5)

-When the Sun appeals to Zeus, he stirs up a storm that destroys the ship of Odysseus (book 12)

-Permits the punishment of the Phaeaceans (book 13)

-Hermes

-Is sent to alert Calypso that Odysseus must be released (book 5)

-Alerts Odysseus to the fact that Moly will protect him from Circe (book 10)

-Leads the souls of the suitors to the underworld (book 24)

-Laertes: The elderly father of Odysseus, whom resides on a beautiful farm in the Ithica.

-Odysseus Laertes and decides to test his loyalty. Odysseus tells his father that his name is Quarrelman and that he once hosted Odysseus on his journey home. He argues and says that Odysseus is not home. Finally Odysseus shows him the scar and they celebrate by eating a meal prepared by Telemachus and the herdsman When the family members of the fallen suitors manage to find Odysseus at his house, a brief altercation erupts. He is actually the one to throw a spear, and kill Eupeithes (book 24)

-Tiresias: He is the prophet from Thebe that inhabits the underworld.

-He meets Odysseus when Odysseus travels to the Underworld. He tells Odysseus why he and his men are being punished. He fortells the fate of Odysseus, saying that he will soon return home to Ithaca. And he warns Odysseus to be careful in Thrinacia. He assists Odysseus in talking to Anticleia before showing him how to get back to Ithica (Book 11).

-Alcinous: He is the King of the Phaeceans, who resides on his island kingdom of Scheria.

-Calls a meeting, where he proposes supplying Odysseus with a ship to get home. He also arranges a series of games (wresting, boxing, racing, discus) in honor of Odysseus. After diffusing the situation between Broadsea and Odysseus, he invites him to come to one last dinner before he returns home. At this dinner, the singer Demondocus begins to sing about the Troy, which seems to be a tear jerker for Odysseus. Seing this he questions Odysseus of his identity again (book 8)

-Gives Odysseus many gifts, and sends him off to Ithaca (book 13)

-Arete: She is the Queen of the Phaeceans, and wife of Alcinous.

-Becomes very suspicious of the clothing that Odysseus is wearing, because she recognizes it as Nausicaa’s (book 7).

-Nausicaa: Daughter of Alcinous

-Is visited by Athena, and is encouraged to go to the river to wash her clothes. She goes to the river and encounters a naked Odysseus. Because she did not want to give off the wrong impression, she gives Odysseus the directions to the palace of her parents, Arete and Alcinous (book 6).

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