Critical Analysis

Climate Change: On the International Stage

Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

by Rema Hanna and Paulina Oliva

The article, Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries by Rema Hanna and Paulina Oliva discusses the impacts climate change has and will continue to have on children in developing countries. In their article Rema Hanna and Paulina Oliva argue that climate change impacts developing nations more than developed nations, more specifically children are being impacted most of all. They argue that developed countries should be encouraged to create and implement policies to protect the children in developing countries and offer more assistance for them to further their own programs when it comes to climate change. Their argument relies heavily on logic pulled from various sources of data and statistics as well as citations from a number of esteemed experts in their fields. Hanna and Oliva continue to say that not only does climate change have a physical impact on children in developing countries but also, it has an economic impact on society which then can lead to various psychological impacts that has the potential to hinder a developing nations society.

Hanna and Oliva provide a number of points that support their case, one of which was the impact on health that climate change had on children in developing countries. The second, was the psychological impact that climate change has on children in developing countries. And finally Hannah and Olivia disgust the education or lack thereof when it came to climate and the impact it had on children in developing countries. Climate change is being called “one of the biggest Global Health threats of the 21st century” (Rema Hanna, 2016). The climate today is become increasingly more unpredictable and there has been an increase of extreme weather events. In some areas there is enormous coastal flooding and in areas there are record droughts. One thing that we need to be concerned about is the future more importantly the future of developing countries. Children are the most vulnerable when it comes to the environment comma day heavily rely on the environment through food, pollution, and their overall well-being when they are in their early developing stages. If a child grows up in a healthy environment then they will become a healthier adult.

Hanna and Oliva clearly acknowledge that there are several potential flaws to their research. The first thing that they acknowledged was that climate change may not impact developing countries the same way therefore it will impact Children’s Health in developing countries differently. One of the other things that day realized could be a problem was the fact that the data not date site may not necessarily focus on an age therefore they infer based on what they know. The final challenge that Hanna and Oliva acknowledge was that it is oftentimes hard to isolate the cause of health issues in developing countries. By acknowledging these flaws Hannah and Olivia become more credible due to the fact that they are up for about the potential flaws in their research. This allows the reader to determine if the facts or opinions that have been given have the liberty to their own research because they are able to form their own opinion knowing these flaws in the research.

Their organization of the article was extremely easy to follow and clear-cut allowing the reader to easily follow the various quote channels and quote that could cause and impact on climate change and children in developing countries. Their work also looks to the future through several case studies. One of these examples would be when they discuss education and how due to climate change a family could have a lower income and may not be able to afford to send their children to school.

It was also helpful that they discussed the psychological impacts that climate change could have on children in developing countries. An example of this would be due to climate change and an increased exposure to natural disasters children in developing countries are more likely to experience psychological symptoms such as post-traumatic stress. This has the potential to stay with a child also cause economic distress once they’re older.

This article was particularly helpful because not only did it this guy the impacts climate change has on children in developing countries but it also discussed the various economic challenges that developing countries face as well as the policies a government may or may not in place to protect the citizens from the repercussions of climate change. It was important because the authors do not only discuss developing countries, they also discuss developed countries and how certain policies have been put in place in developed countries that developing countries may not have which harming the developing countries.

Works Cited

Rema Hanna, P. O. (2016). Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries. Future of Children, 115–132.

See What Climate Change Means for the World’s Poor

by Gabe Bullard

In the news article See What Climate Change Means for the World’s Poor by Gabe Bullard issued in National Geographic Bullard discusses the various ways climate change an impact the world’s poor through agriculture as well as the health impacts and future complications it can have to society. Bullard argues that there are two economic scenarios that can predict the economic growth when it comes to the impact climate change has.

The first scenario Bullard focuses on is the “Prosperity scenario”. This is a prediction that states that climate change will bring forth a stronger economy and focuses on the ideas that there will be a decrease in the world’s poverty. The second scenario Bullard suggest is called the “poverty scenario”. This scenario is not as optimistic. Bullard states that it will predict an increase of impoverished people. Bullard states that “the current 702 million to around 900 Million by 2030 without factoring in climate change. When climate change is part of the equation more than a billion people will be in poverty” (Bullard, 2015). These statistics were useful when it came to the understanding of future predictions and how climate change would potentially impact the futures economy.

The text was clearly written as well as extremely organized when it came to the comparison between the prosperity and the poverty scenario. The graphs that were shown were instrumental to providing a visual throughout the comparison between the prosperity scenario and the poverty scenario both when it came to without climate change and swell as a high-impact from climate change. The text not only provided the comparison between the two economic situations but also provided outlines for food budgets spent in various locations throughout the world for the poorest, poor, middle, and wealthier households. Because agriculture is such an important industry to all countries, providing this information became valuable to understanding why climate change impacting agriculture in developing countries was so important.

One weakness that could be noted throughout the data would be that Bullard did not go into depth with regards to the impact climate change would have on the countries’ economies. He stated that there were two possible theories however, it would have been more beneficial if Bullard for their explained his opinion or if he had stated the opinion of an expert with regards to the prosperity and poverty scenario.

The text also provided a strong selection of resources from which the data has been gathered. One of the most credible sources came from the World Bank, therefore there was minimal bias that was involved in the data. Bullard focused on the data and do not appear to have let his personal opinions influence his writing of the article. However, with any writing material one must be aware of the author’s intent as well as to the audience

Works Cited

Bullard, G. (2015). See What Climate Change Means for the World’s Poor. National Geographic .

Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye

National Geographic

In the video, Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye by National Geographic, Bill Nye begins by informing us of the various aspects of climate change such as the various causes of climate change and the effects climate change has on the environment. The main points of the video include why climate change is an issue, causes of climate change, and discusses some of the greatest impact climate change has on the environment.

The video is quite basic and it comes to its explanation on climate change and through its proposed solutions the video has provided to be a valuable source when it comes to the understanding of what people know about climate change. So many of these facts appear to be so simple and yet at the same time they are not spoken about enough for people too always believe that climate change is a problem in more ways than one.

He ends the video by offering solutions to the issue at hand which in this case would be climate change. Some of the solutions he offers are “conserving energy, recycling, walking, eating more locally grown produce, and most importantly sharing your knowledge” (Geographic, 2015). This was valuable information when it came to understanding the various ways that we could find solutions to climate change, we were also able to compare these solutions to others that had been suggested by other sources.

This resource was very factual and straight to the point with minimal bias towards climate change and its relation to human impact. There was a point in the middle where the video briefly discuss how humans are impacting climate change however after that moment it returned to focusing on hard data related to climate change and how climate change impacts the environment and our society.

Works Cited

Geographic, N. (Director). (2015). Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye [Motion Picture].

Retrieved from Your Knowledge Space on Climate Change

Impact of Climate Change in North America

This website was very useful when looking at the developed countries in comparison to the developing countries. This resource was very valuable when it came to understanding how climate change impacts developed countries. One of the biggest helps came from the interactive guide that it had. You could choose specific regions of the world and receive a list of climate change facts that pertained to the specific region. This became very useful with selecting developed countries and finding impacts of climate change that were directly related to them that developing or underdeveloped countries may not have to deal with.

The website your knowledge space on climate was very objective in its view of climate change and kept to Pure facts. It did not provide many opinions. The website also provided a variety of types of impacts. Climate change had. It’s not simply focus on one specific area but displayed a global view of climate change and from there you have the option to select developed countries. However, this website did not provide an in-depth analysis of the impacts climate change had on developed countries. It laid out a list of and its relations to society but it did not go in depth as far as the social and economic impacts that it had. It’s so pissed purely on the environmental impacts that climate change had on developed countries.

The webpage impacts of climate change had the option to select sector and packs at which point you can choose from a variety of Health, agriculture, Forest, Water Resource, coastal areas, species natural areas to devise the various ways climate change can impact a developed Nation. When using this resource One thing that would have been more useful would be if the what page provided and author and more importantly the credibility of the author. The website is a thought word make it more credible than others however when using this information, they’re still has to be a level of skepticism when it comes to the validity of the facts that have been given but more importantly the validity the author has to be stating and publicizing these facts.

For example, when focusing on North America the website stated that some of the major impacts included rising sea levels wildfires increase that’s due to various health risks as well as an increased and diminished snow fields. It also mentioned the increase “stress on natural resources” (Impacts of Climate Change, 2017). All these the tribute to the impacts climate change has had on America and on many other developed nations.

Works Cited

Impacts of Climate Change. (2017, April 30). Retrieved from Your Knowledge Space on Climate Change: http://know.climateofconcern.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=article&id=109

“How Much Do You Know About Climate Change?” Poll

For our final project my group and I decided to take a position on climate change and how there are different affects from the change on the different type of nations and continents — including islands, underdeveloped, developing, and developed nations. To gather some information to help us, as researchers, gather a better understanding of what the general population knows about climate change and their own opinions of the change, we conducted a simple ten question poll that included questions about how much the individual taking the poll knew about climate change, if they knew what bio-magnification was, land degradation was, how much they knew about rising sea level impacts on islands both politically and economically, and if they thought a current issue in the United States had a greater political or environmental impact. We ended the survey with asking if the individual taking the survey thought climate change was real and if humans were part of the causation of the change and asking them to submit where they went/are currently at sch0ol or where they are from (so that we, as the surveyors could have a better understanding of where the people who participated in the survey were from.

Our findings were quite interesting; the results showed that most people would say they know some information about climate change, 47.1% of the survey participants, to be exact. While 21.1% said that they knew a lot, 28.6 said they know little information and 3.2% of participants said they knew nothing at all about climate change (Hannah Byrum, 2017). To me, this only goes to prove the point that I would like to make that 31.8% of the general population does not know enough about climate change. For example, on topics like, CO2 emissions, the natural heating and cooling cycles of the earth, what man made machinery or innovations causes heating of the atmosphere, what industry puts off the most CO2 emission in the United States, and many more other factors of climate change, both natural and man-made. I was honored enough to sit in on a lecture by Nick Loris of the Heritage Foundation, which focuses on climate change and legislation that deals with regulation of pollutants and engineering new ideas to start improving what is put out by industries. He agreed with our poll and what we believe our poll tells us on the fact that many people, more specifically, the general population will go to their state senator even local senator and lobby themselves on the legislation, whether for or against it, without being fully educated on what exactly the legislation is saying. This only reiterates the point that I am trying to make with this poll but that has also been made time and time again in class; how important educating oneself on the topic at hand before speaking out about it.

To further go along with the importance of education, we posed two simple “yes or no” questions one asking if they knew what “land degradation” was and if they knew what bio-magnification was. One which, in simplest form, erosion. And one which is the amplification of a chemical the further up the food chain it goes. We asked these questions not for any part of the presentation other than the importance of education. Both topics impact humans. One can happen in a second, i.e. mud slide, buckle in road ways due to changing in the surface beneath the road and the other happens over time- most commonly seen with food where the best example is that a small fish ingest a sum of mercury and when a larger fish or predator eats the smaller fish the mercury is amplified and continues to get amplified until it reaches the top of the food chain; which can be hazardous. Both impact humans and animals and the planet, one is just easier to see and understand than the other. The further we went on when thinking of questions, the more we wanted to know how many people thought their high school had educated them on climate change. To a huge surprise from me, 41.6% said that their high school did not teach them anything about climate change, 32.4% said that they were taught a little about it, 18.9% said some, and 7.1% said their high school taught them a lot about climate change (Hannah Byrum, 2017). Which only means, we need to be more aware of what is going on around us and that with climate change being such a hot topic that many demand action be taken to help the earth instead of harm it; climate change should start to be taught more frequently and in depth that way students and young adults are exposed to the ideas and understanding behind climate change and can maybe continue their education on climate change and environmental sciences.

Next, we asked if people knew the political and environmental impacts climate change has on islands. Islands are such an important part of the ecosystem and are home to the three million people (just shy of the United States population). 75.3% of people said they did know both impacts of climate change on islands and 24.7% answered no (Hannah Byrum, 2017). Again, this question not only shows the importance of educating the general population of how there are other people who are effected at a much greater impact that a developed nation or even developing nation. This also was the entrance to what I will be talking about during the presentation. As I have done some research on islands and why they are important to the globe, and no, they are not just important so millennials can take pictures and drink on a beach or to have a “spring break getta-way”. I wanted to show that islands, as small as they may be, are the first to experience any implications of climate change, which in turn means they provide the most information, for us as a globe, when it comes to figuring out what exactly comes down to the impacts of climate change.

When thinking about current issues going on in the United States, we as a group wanted to get a feel on whether a current social and environmental issue was more politically charged and impacted or environmentally charged and impact. 75.3% of participants said that the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) had a big influence on the current political issues and the economic issues. Whereas, 49.6% said that it had a large environmental impact (Hannah Byrum, 2017). We decided to make this question different in allowing participants to answer maybe for their answer, which to us meant they were not entirely sure of what the greater impact was. In the question asking if it was a bigger economic and political impact, 15.8% said maybe and 9% said no, it did not. In the question asking if the DAPL had a bigger environmental impact, 30.7% said maybe and 19.6% said no it did not (Hannah Byrum, 2017). In my opinion, these results tell me that more people believed that this environment altering project had to do more with politics and social and economic standpoints and issues than environmental stand points and issues that are current.

For our next question, we had asked what type of nation is effected by climate change the most. 77.8% of responders said that it affects all equally, 14% said underdeveloped, 4.7% said developing and 3.8% said developed (Hannah Byrum, 2017). In my opinion, this shows that a great deal of people believe that all types of nations are effected which is a great thing to see, since all types of nations are effected. However, the nations that are effected the most are the underdeveloped. They tend to be the ones who have less resources to combat against climate change and take the hardest hit on climate change.

Our final question was to see if people believed that climate change was real, and if humans were part of the causation of climate change. With no surprised, most people said yes, it is real (82.6%) and majority of the people said yes humans are part of the issue (73.7) but there was 8.5% of responders that believed climate change was not real and 16.4% believe humans are not the causation (Hannah Byrum, 2017). After carefully looking at these results, the only conclusion I feel I need to make is this: I’m very pleased to see a response for all the possible answers. I allowed this question to be a check box answer meaning the responders could check two boxes because people may view that it is real but that humans are the problem or they may feel it is real and humans are not the issue or they may feel like it is not a real thing at all and is a conspiracy or propaganda. I’m pleased that there was a response to every one of those choices because that means that there are differences of opinions that could be heard and that these differences of opinions could lead to discussions and those discussions could lead to progress on either figuring out how to minimalize the amount of man-made output that alters the climate or finding a way to make climate change emphasized, not only in high schools but in all grades, when it comes to education.

Over all, I am extremely proud of the results. We had participants for 24 different states in the United States, Quebec and Montreal, Canada, Germany, Australia, showing us that these opinions and views are not only nationwide but are shared on the international level which connects us all to one another (Hannah Byrum, 2017). It’s important to remember that education is an important factor in not only understanding what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done to improve the situation but also being educated is important to knowing how to fight for certain legislations that work for or go against what you as individual want and or believe in. The more you know, the more you can do.

Works Cited

Hannah Byrum, Madison McElhinney, Fiona Ryman. (2017, April 28). How Much Do You Know About Climate Change . Roanoke , Virginia , United States : Unpublished.

Review: A Remote Pacific Nation,

Threatened by Rising Seas.

NY Times: Mike Ives

In this article the author, Mike Ives, specifically talks about islands and rising sea levels. Ives mentions that by the year 2100, the sea’s level will have risen by 5–6 feet (Ives, 2016). He further mentions that the island of Kiribati, and many other islands off the pacific coast are no higher than 6 feet above sea level. Anyone who has basic math skills can see that this will be a problem one day. My response to this is, if we can see the problem now then why not start trying to fix it? If you could foresee a car crash coming would you not do something to stop it from happening and potentially save people’s lives?

As I was planning the slides I would be presenting in the presentation, I knew how important all islands are to ecosystems and other people. I wanted to make sure I was finding articles that enhanced the information I already knew. In this newsletter, it is stated that a rise in sea levels are likely to cause a worsen erosion, groundwater shortages and intrusion of salt water into freshwater (Ives, 2016). All issues that I had never even considered before when thinking about the potential issues that climate change can cause for islands.

The article further talks about how that not all islands are created equal. While most are lingering close to sea level and are in immediate danger when it comes to the change in sea levels; islands like Fiji are less likely to suffer the same issues as say Kiribati and the islands surrounding it. Fiji is much higher above sea level and therefore do not have to worry about the same issues as other islands (Ives, 2016). Their ground water is not a huge worry and they do not have to worry about the rise in sea levels infringing on their homes and livelihood. I really think this is also a good point to remember: not all islands are the same. They are unique in their own, individual ways and therefore do not have that same domestic issues as the others.

The author went on to talk about how the President of Kiribati, Anote Tong had his priorities on climate change, became a celebrity on it where he was invited to go to conferences and speak around the world. When he was unable to be re-elected since he had already been in office for three terms the opposition to his party won the next election. The president after President Tong, President Taneti Maamau decided to take a shift in priorities. He decided to focus more on “bigger issues” in his opinion like population, health of the people, and education of the people. In my opinion, I think the smarter option should have been to find a balance between spending and using resources on climate change issues and domestic issues.

Switching focus, a professor of geography at the University of British Columbia, Simon Donner explained that the idea of an outside organization that has “money and expertise and ideas” where said organization tries to “implement something easily is naïve”. He then states that in order to pull off the ideas to fixing climate change requires time, ideas, expertise and long term research and consistent funding (Ives, 2016). I also personally agree strongly with this. I believe that in order to solve the puzzle of climate change there must be consistent funding — a one-time big check cannot be written and expected to solve all problems.

I strongly believe that this article provides a good amount of insight of the many things a nation deals with when it comes to climate change. I think it shows the importance of not forgetting other problems, like domestic problems, instead of just sending all the resources to one area. This article shows a great deal of the importance of finding a balance when tackling on issues. Most importantly, I believe that for those reasons, this article is a good article to use for this project.

Works Cited

Ives, M. (2016, June 2). A Remote Pacific Nation Threatened by Rising Seas. Retrieved April 20, 2017, from NY Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/world/asia/climate-change-kiribati.html?_r=0

Review:

Why Islands Are Important

To the Planet.

I will openly say that that writing an essay about the essay that I wrote a few weeks back. The article that I wrote specifically targeted why islands are important. This essay lead the gateway to the opening of our presentation with islands.

First and foremost, the research based paper that I wrote did not specifically target islands for one reason- I looked for articles that talked about economically, socially, politically, and environmentally and found more information than I could imagine. Enough information that I could write a ten-fifteen-page research paper on. For the purposes of this essay, I’ll let it be known that I was the author of this essay but I will also give the source of the information within my article since none of these statistics are my own.

The essay that I wrote starts off by talking about the important information about islands like how biodiverse islands are. They make up 20% of all reptile, plant, and bird species (Kaiser, 2016).

Next, I talked about how islands are a good way to find out how much the sea level has risen or fallen and the conservation frontiers. This part explained how islands are typically smaller in size and often in an isolated location (Byrum, 2017). I also talked about how it is important it is, regarding rising sea levels, since islands are so isolated; the consequences are higher (Byrum, 2017), (Kaiser, 2016).

Third, I talked about how islands support people. Islands support over 600 million people for all islands (Kaiser, 2016). These people are home to this particular island and since it is secluded and isolated, harder to industrialize (if they wanted to). It was also said in the article that I used for my medium post that islands are an incredible place where one can find a unique culture, traditions, and history (Kaiser, 2016), (Byrum, 2017).

Fourth on my essay, I talked about how islands are a good foundation for a good foundation for coral reef ecosystems. In the article written by Sara Kaiser, She talked mentioned that the ocean patterns are constant and they move around the islands, making a bubble type motion around the islands. This clear space, free of harsh currents make coral reef systems a perfect place to thrive (Kaiser, 2016). I also wanted to mention that the coral reefs are home to 25% of the ocean population (Byrum, 2017). This means that it is extremely important to preserve.

I thought using this essay was extremely good. I am also proud of myself for the way that I wrote this article. It emphasized the important things. This way at least the big, main topics were remembered — even if all the statistics were not.

Works Cited

Byrum, H. (2017, April 2). Why Islands Are Important To The Planet: . Retrieved April 27, 2017, from Medium: https://medium.com/@byrumhk/why-islands-are-important-to-the-planet-938dda322e38

Kaiser, S. (2016, April 22). 5 Reasons Why Islands are Important for the Planet . Retrieved from Island Conservation, Preventing Extinctions: http://www.islandconservation.org/five-reasons-islands-are-important-for-the-planet/