Literature review for my MA project…

The Data Journalism Handbook: How Journalists Can Use Data to Improve the News.

2012 // By Jonathan Gray, Lucy Chambers, Liliana Bounegru

“Data journalism can help a journalist tell a complex story through engaging infograpgics.”

^ Whilst not the most guiding research, it does justify the scope of the project. By this, it shows that by using my skills as a data journalist, I’m able to take a complex story like acadamies in Birmingham and tell them in an enaging way from graphs to tables.

“We should be conscious of how it [Data] can shape and restrict the stories that told” (Paul Bradshaw)

^ The book also raises ethical issues that I will face. Whilst the focus of the data may be the whole foundation of the story, I need to be aware of the limitations (such as availability) and how that could impact the final story.

“It should not be about just analysing or visualising data for the sake of it, but to use it as a tool to get closer to the truth of what is going on in the world.” (Cynthia O’Murchu, Financial Times)

^ A vital skill that builds on my weakness, I need to take a step back from the data. Yes, I have an abudance of data but that does not mean that I have to shove it in there for the sake of it, instead I need to utalise my connections with BoldemereMums to focus on the human element and instead use the data as a supporting pillar in revealing the truth and informing the public.

Online Journalim Ethics: Traditions and Transitions

???? // By Cecilia Friend and Jane Singer

“In Miller’s hierarchy of trust, government data tops the list. A site with a .gov extension has data you can personally question, he says, but you can saely use and attribute it to a specific government enitity or agency.”

^ To get the initial data, I should use the official goverment website which provides all the infromation that I would need. This will ensure accuracy of the information that is gathered and a minimul risk of bias and misinformation being presented to the audience.

“The ability of one person to publisher their thoughts to a gloal audience remains a unique online activity.”

^ One thing that I need to be aware of is that by myself soley producing this article, though this could extend to even Kath Scott who is helping me, there is a risk that our own personal thoughts either polticial, social or other could influence the final design of the product

Online Journalism: Principles and Practices of News for the web

2017 // By Jim Frost

“For user-generated content to be effective, journalists have to go beyond just asking and writing. It requires “finesse, hard work and respect for your submitters.”

^ I need to use the idea of a survey beyond the traditional concept of asking and writing. As such, I need to refine the survey with Kath in order to generate questions that show respect to my audiennce who are giving their time to fill it out and thus, would want questions that benefit themselves through the knowledge that would be gained

What is longform journalism?

2012 // By Charlotte Harper

“The finding of documents, whether in print or online, interviewing people and first-hand observation”, and notes that when journalists are given, or take.”

^ The final product can’t just be 10,000 words about academies in Birmingham. It needs to be broken down like a book almost with a variety of different content and media types allowing for the audinece to engage the readers in different varities.

“They need to adopt a narrative approach to storytelling that means their true stories enlarge readers’ understanding of an issue or event”.

^ By the end of the production of the project, I need to be able to answer one question: Has the product enlarged readers understanding of acadamies in Birmingham? If the answer is yes, then I have produced a good longform story.

“When done well, longform true stories deeply engage readers emotionally as well as intellectually.”

^ As with any article in journalism, I need to engage the readers not just intellectually with facts but also emotionally with human stories, that way people will become fully aware and engaged with the issue.

Investigative Journalism

2008 // By Hugo De Burgh

“Investigative journalism still has the potential to make a worth-while contribution to soceity.”

^ Any story that I produce needs to, at its core, make a worth-while contribution to society. It needs to add something new to the world and not just a re-telling of an already published story.

[Paul Bradshaw]

“There are reservations about using crowdsourcing for covering particular issues — in particular concerning legal issues such as libel.”

^ I’ve had issues of people saying XYZ is shit and this is bad. Whilst it’s good to get their opinion, I can’t simply just publish it.

“Foundations and reader donations will increasingly support investigative journalism.”

^ Ironically, as I started engaging with the community more and more I was getting donations from the public in terms of people submitting their opinions, views and experiences.

Ethics of Digital Journalists: Emerging Best Pracitces

???? // By Lawrie Zion, David Craig (Ft. Paul Bradshaw)

“From filtering through large amounts of data to find intresting leads, to industrial-scale information gathering through techniques such as scraping.”

^ These are some of the core concept I need to do in order to ensure that I’m still working as a data journalist. By doing this, I’ll ensure that the core purpose of this project is kept and that it also has proffesional context.

“Adding context is a vital part of the data journalism process: absolute figures must be put into the contect of the size of local population, historical patternsm and even differing demographics.”

^ A lot of the original data I got wasjust stating a given school. This made me go back and discover (Though it delayed the proccess) the same figures for both the LA and the national picture. Giving the article colour and purpose.

Data visulisation needs to be equally clear: charts and tales, for example, should generally have a baseline of zero to avoid misreprenting changes as being more severe than they are.”

^ An obvious rule, but an important role. I need to make sure that any visulisation is clear and represents the data acutally and is not leading the reader into one way of thinking. It’s also fairto say that this now includes making sure the graphs are suitable for mobile and not just desktop.

Ethics of Digital Journalists: Emerging Best Pracitces

???? // By Lawrie Zion, David Craig (Ft. Paul Bradshaw)

“Survey-based journalism is particularly vulnerable to misrepresentation.”

^ Using a survey is very risky. There’s a risk that it could lead to misreprensation. Espically when your only getting a miniscule amount of responces to the survey which don’t (well, might now) full represent the community that your writing about.

“Skepticism is also required when gathering data yourself through surveys or ‘crowdsourcing.’ Depending on how the results might be used, your system may need a check on unusal patterns of behavior which may suggest people are ‘gaming’ the system.”

^ I need to be realistic when gathering the data through a survey. Can I enure that people are only ‘voting’ once e.t.c. How do I eleminate the risk of bias e.t.c

“Linking to the full data where possible.”

^ Simply put, even though I’m going to write about the data within the article, I need to make sure that there is an active link to say GitHub where the person can fully download the data.