Journal 11c

Sunday, April 9th (hours completed = 2)

4pm-6pm at Starbucks

1. Plutarch seems worried that readers won’t take his stories about women seriously. Why might that be? What does his concern tell us about prevailing ancient attitudes towards women in the public sphere?

Women during that century were most likely seen as holding a supportive role rather than a leadership role. In this century, women were not the hot topic. What I mean is that they were not talked about as often or they were not discussed in a way that portrayed their leadership qualities. In most cases, women of that time were not expected to demonstrate common male traits or virtues like bravery, intellectuality, wisdom, etc. Because of these ancient attitudes towards women, Plutarch seems worried that readers won’t take his stories about women seriously. He argues that man’s virtues and woman’s virtues are the same. Despite those attitudes, Plutarch presents virtues of women that bring light to their importance and contribution to society as a whole. He states “Since, however, many deeds worthy of mention have been done by women both in association with other women and by themselves alone, it may not be a bad idea to set down first a brief account of those commonly known.” How could we ignore the virtues of women or the leadership of women if they contributed to some of the successes of this century? Plutarch values women and almost expects others to do the same due to the contributions that women have made individually or collectively.

3. How would you describe Plutarch and Clea’s relationship?

I believe that Plutarch loved Clea for her mind and her accolades. Those are the things that he truly valued about Clea. I believe that he truly respected Clea.

Tuesday, April 11th (hours completed = 2)

9:40am — 11am; 12pm — 1pm

  • Whether the virtue of women is the same as men
  • Civility in leadership — — what is the role of civility in leadership
  • Alagany Pennsylvania
  • Civility is crucial and valuable
  • 2010, President obama was giving the State of the Union Address and someone said “You lie.”
  • Brianna gave the exam of her and her roommate that argued all the time (debated) — — opposes the person’s viewpoints
  • Is there a difference between beliefs and character?
  • Does the notion of civility mandate that you should reach out to people like that?
  • Dr. Sandridge has faith in dialogue; he is a truth seeker ; he believes they (his friends) have to both be curious about the truth
  • Friendship portfolio
  • Examples of women:
  • Women leading and it being crucial to the values of the whole community
  • Women of Argos
  • Do women lead in the same way as men? Is it such a thing as gendered leadership?
  • How did a house give birth to a daughter ? Lol
  • Music is the doctor
  • She inspired the army
  • Ares — God of war

Step 2:

Listening for Leadership

What are the various good, virtuous qualities women display? How do women make men do what they want? How do they use their bodies, and how do they use their intellect to effect what they want? What do women do (or what happens to them) after they have succeeded in achieving their aims?

For the women of Phocis, some of the qualities that the women display are decision making skills and teamwork skills. In this specific example, women were ability to work collectively to come up with their vote that would help the entire community. The women did not have to force their opinion on the men, rather, one man in the council suggested that women should also have to approve this new plan before implementation. Because of that, the women did not have to fight or anything in order to be included in this new plan. They only needed to agree as a group and communicate that to the council. The women in this section did not use their bodies to effect what they wanted, however, their intellect was used more significantly in this decision making process. After this event, they created a festival to commemorate that day of victory.

For the women of Argos, Telesilla became an influential leader for the women fighting against Cleomenes. She was artistic, creative, and brave. The women she led displayed qualities of bravery and determination. In this case, women only used their bodies as a sacrifice for the community. They were willing to die in order to obtain the victory and save the city. The women were victorious and defeated the Spartans. After that, women were not reunited with their slaves and unfortunately became more prideful by showing indifference to men who were married. Women felt that those men were seen as inferior or with lower status.

For the women of Persia, these women were brave and powerful by challenging the Persians who tried to enter into the city. They fled from the battle and are now seen as cowards as the Persian women pointed out. These women actually used their bodies to make the men do what they want. From my understanding, I believe these women flashed the men who were entering the city with the intent to get their attention and to make them stop what they were doing. In some ways, I consider it a method of manipulation that the women played on the men. I envision the women pulling up their garments and men being totally distracted by the exposure of body parts. In my opinion, sometimes women can use their body to manipulate men into doing what they want. I don’t believe that the motive to complete this act was completely out of manipulation but I see how it could be used. However it is shameful for the women to show their naked bodies in public. These women were taunting the Persians and that was a method they used to get what they wanted out of those men.

Wednesday, April 12th (hours completed = 2)

11am — 1pm

Step 3: The Special Power of the Individual Woman

Plutarch says “But the daughter of Mandron, Lampsace, a young girl, learned of the plot beforehand, and tried first to dissuade her friends and relatives and to point out to them that they were undertaking to carry out a frightful and wicked deed in murdering men who were their benefactors and allies and now also their fellow-citizens.” This quote is an example of how Lampsace took charge in trying to warn her friends and family about the crime that was going to take place. The qualities portrayed include boldness and persuasion. As it is written, she told the Greeks about what was happening and expected them to do something about it, however, everything was already set in stone. Additionally, she displayed common sense because the men who were drunk were clearly unable to make wise decisions in that state of mind. There was a lack of judgement on their end and for her to step up and suggest that their decision was out of ignorance and/or lack of judgement.

Step 4: Analyzing the Vices for Men

In Virtues of Women, identify and categorize the actions and qualities of the men in the stories. Are there recurring types of men who appear throughout the stories? If you were to sketch out a stereotype of a man from this text, how would you describe him?

Men Women







Acting before thinking


Not weighing their options or consequences






Step 5: How manly does a female leader have to be ?

Before moving on to the questions presented in that paragraph, I wanted to respond to the question in the title of this step of the module. When thinking about female leaders, I don’t believe that their is a level of manliness that they need. I believe that if they have the qualities of a leader in general then that is what sets them apart from any male or female leader. It is important to distinguish the different qualities displayed between men and women but I also think that there are some qualities that overlap between both groups. We can have a strong, dedicated, and bold female leader as well as a male leader with the same traits. I decided to ask one of my friends this same question and she said “zero.” I love that! That was interesting because it just goes to show that women do not need to obtain a particular set of male traits in order to meet the qualifications of being a leader.

Is courage, a hallmark trait of a leader, something inaccessible to women? Do women need to become “manly” in order to be courageous or virtuous? Is the virtue of men and women one and the same because it is always defined in masculine terms?

Yes courage is a hallmark trait of a leader but it is accessible to women. The Greek word for courage is (andreia), created from the stem of the word for “man”. In essence, courage means manliness to the Greeks meaning that they mostly associate courage to a man rather than a woman. What I find interesting is that today, the name andreia is usually given to women or is usually seen as a more “girly” term. Because of that, we see that the name could potentially be translated as courage but for women too. So not just associated with manliness but associated with acting womanly. Perhaps the word andreia could encourage communities to see courage in both males and females in a way that is accepting of men in leadership as well as women. With that, I believe that women do not need to become “manly” in order to be courageous or virtuous. Yes I feel as though the virtue of men and women are one and the same, although it is not always seen in that light.

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