I guess I’m going to have to read the paper by the original authors. Lot’s of missing pieces here. First off, what’s with the use of question marks everywhere, even where questions are not being raised? Is this to indicate doubt on the part of the author on this particular area? If that’s the case, I agree with many.
I say I’m going to have to read the paper because what does a flat universe even mean? It’s still has 3 dimensions that we perceive, likely more that we do not. If it’s “flat” does that mean it has a width (and don’t tell me 13.9 billion light years)? If so, has that been calculated?
Another issue (which may be elaborated on in the paper) is when observing distant galaxy pairs light changes, how much of that change is affected by matter, energy, dark matter and/or energy? Isn’t the reason we speak of dark matter/energy because of the gravitational lensing we see around galaxies?
Again, this is not criticism of the author of this piece, but rather questions that will likely be answered by reading the original paper (I hope…).
To the author, thanks for bringing this to light. It is a fascinating topic and it motivates this reader to dig some more. Gracias.