How to Analyze Google Cloud Committed Use Discounts
In this blog we will look at the Google Cloud Committed Use discount program for customers that are willing to “commit” to a certain level of usage of the GCP Compute Engine.
The Committed Use purchasing option is particularly useful if you are certain that you will be continually operating instances in a region and project over the course of a year or more. If your instance usage does not add up to a full month, you may instead want to look at the Google Cloud Sustained Use discounts, which we discussed in a previous blog.
The Google Cloud Committed Use discount program has many similarities to the AWS and Azure Reserved Instances (RI) programs, and a couple unique aspects as well. A comparison of the various cloud providers’ reservation programs is probably worth a blog in itself, so for now, let’s focus on the Google Cloud Committed Use discounts, and the best times and places to use them.
Critical Facts about Google Cloud Committed Use
- The Committed Use discount is best for a stable and predictable workload (you are committed to pay — regardless of whether you use the resources or not!)
- Commitment periods are for either 1 or 3 years.
- Commitments are for a specific region and a specific project. Zone assignment within a region is not a factor.
- Discounts apply to the total number of vCPUs and amount of memory– not to a specific machine or machine type.
- No pre-payment — the commitment cost is billed monthly.
- GCP Committed Use discounts are available for all of the GCP instance families except the shared-core machine types, such as f1-micro and g1-small.
- Committed Use discounts do not apply to the premium charges for sole-tenants, nor can they be used for Preemptible instances.
- The commitments for General Purpose instances are distinct from those for Memory Optimized instances. If you have some of both types, you must buy two different types of Commitment. These types are:
General Purpose Memory Optimized
- Standard — n1-standard
- High Memory — n1-highmem
- High CPU — n1-highcpu
- General purpose sole-tenant
How much does it cost?
Each Committed Use purchase must include a specific number of vCPUs and the amount of memory per vCPU. This combination of needing to commit to both a number of vCPUs and amount of Memory can make the purchase of a commitment a bit more complicated if you use a variety of machine types in your environment. The following table illustrates some GCP machine types and the amount of memory automatically provided per vCPU:
Machine TypeMemory per vCPUn1-standard3.75 GBn1-highmem6.50 GBn1-highcpu0.90 GBn1-ultramem14–24 GBcustom0.9–6.5 GB
While the vCPU aspect is fairly straightforward, the memory commitment to purchase requires a bit of thought. Since it is not based on a specific machine type (like AWS and Azure), you must decide just how much memory to sign-up for. If your set of machine types is homogeneous, this is easy — just match the vCPU/memory ratio to what you run. The good news here is that you are just buying a big blob of memory — you are not restricted to rigidly holding to some vCPU/memory ratio. The billing system will “use up” a chunk of memory for one instance and then move on to the next.
Looking at a specific example, the n1-standard-8 in the Oregon region that we discussed in the Sustained Usage Blog, we can see that the Committed Use discount does amount to some savings, but one must maintain a usage level throughout the month to fully consume the commitment.
Recall from the earlier blog that the base price of this instance type in the GCP Price list already assumes a Sustained Usage discount over a full month, and that the actual “list price” of the instance type is $277.40, and Sustained Usage provides up to a maximum of a 30% discount. With that as a basis, we can see that the net savings for the Committed Use discount over 1 year is 37%, and over 3 years, rises to 55%. This is close to the advertised discount of 57% in the GCP pricing information, which varies by region.
The break-even points in this graph are about 365 hours/month for a 3 year commitment, and 603 hours/month for a 1 year commitment. In other words, if you are sure you will be using a resource less than 365 hours/month over the course of a year, then you probably want to avoid purchasing a 3 year Commitment.
Allocation of Commitments
Because Commitments are assigned on a vCPU/RAM basis, you cannot simply point at a specific instance, and say THAT instance is assigned to my Committed Use discount. Allocation of commitments is handled when your bill is generated, and your discount is applied in a very specific order:
- To custom machine types
- Sole-tenant node groups
- Predefined machine types
This sequence is generally good for the customer, in that it applies the Commitment to the more expensive instances first. For example, an n1-standard-4 instance in Northern Virginia normally costs $109.35. If an equivalent server was constructed as a Custom instance, it would cost $114.76.
For sole-tenant node groups, you are typically paying for an entire physical machine, and the Committed Use discount serves to offset the normal cost for that node. For a sole-tenant node group that is expected to be operating 7x24x365, it makes the most sense to buy Committed Use for the entire system, as you will be paying for the entire machine, regardless of how many instances are running on it.
Commitments are allocated over the course of each hour in a month, distributing the vCPUs and RAM to all of the instances that are operating in that hour. This means you cannot buy a Commitment for 1 vCPU and 3.75 GB of RAM, and run two n1-standard-1 instances for the first half of the month, and then nothing for the second half of the month, expecting it all to be covered by the Commitment. In this scenario, you would be charged for one month at the committed rate, and two weeks at the regular rate (subject to whatever Sustained Usage discount you might accumulate for the second instance).
Thank you for….not…sharing?
Unlike AWS, where Reserved Instances are automatically shared across multiple linked accounts within an organization, GCP Commitments cannot be shared across projects within a billing account. For some companies, this can be a major decision point as to whether or not they commit to Commitments. Within the ParkMyCloud platform, we see customers with as many as 60 linked AWS accounts, all of which share in a pool of Reserved Instances. GCP customers do not have this flexibility with Commitments, being locked-in to the Project in which they were purchased. A number of our customers use AWS Accounts as a mechanism to track resources for teams and projects; GCP has Projects and Quotas for this purpose, and they are not quite as flexible for committed resource sharing. For a larger organization, this lack of sharing means each project needs to be much more careful about how they purchase Commitments.
Google Cloud Committed Use discounts definitely offer great savings for organizations that expect to maintain a certain level of usage of GCP and that expect to keep those resources within a stable set of regions and projects. Since GCP Commitments are assigned at the vCPU/Memory level, they provide excellent flexibility over machine-type-based assignments. With the right GCP usage profile over a year or more, purchase of Google Cloud Committed Use discounts is a no-brainer, especially since there are no up-front costs!
Originally published at www.parkmycloud.com on July 26, 2018.