[intro]

Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically typed, general-purpose programming language with type inference.

Kotlin is designed to interoperate fully with Java.

Kotlin is used in Android Studio which can develop Android App.

[application]

  1. Web development
  2. backend development

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[abbr]

support-vector machines

[intro]

In machine learning, they are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data for classification and regression analysis.

[application]

  • SVMs are helpful in text and hypertext categorization, as their application can significantly reduce the need for labeled training instances in both the standard inductive and transductive settings.
  • Classification of images.
  • Classification of satellite data like SAR data.
  • Hand-written characters.
  • biological and other sciences: The SVM algorithm has been widely applied in the biological and other sciences. They have been used to classify proteins with up to 90% of the compounds classified correctly. Permutation tests based on SVM weights have been suggested as a mechanism for interpretation of SVM models. Support-vector machine weights have also been used to interpret SVM models in the past.

[ref]

Support-vector machine — Wikipedia

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[abbr]

IOU stands for Intersection Over Union.

GIOU stands for Generalized IOU.

[formula]

IOU = area of intersection / area of union

GIOU= IOU — ( |C\(area of union)| / |C| )

where

C is the universal of A and B.

(What is union and intersection and C? see the following handmade figure.)

(In this figure, C=U.)

More details on the formula, see the following figure.

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