Lean, as they seek maximum efficiency; simple, as they only include the functionalities that really add value to the end user; clean, as they are designed to last; and social, as they are created by and for the community, adding value through empowerment.
Frugal innovation, on the contrary, implies a paradigm change. This type of innovation is ideated and designed in and for the developing countries, taking into consideration the characteristics of the local markets. Frugal innovators harness their knowledge of the local context and the needs of their community to design solutions from scratch adapted to them. They take into account the resource constraints — financial, material and knowledge-based — and design solutions with a much higher success probability.