Interaction with Information II: Annotation and Reflection(9/20/2016)

Marshall, C. Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation, Proc ACM Hypertext 1998, 40–49.

Kumiyo Nakakoji, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Shingo Takada, and Brent N. Reeves. Two-dimensional spatial positioning as a means for reflection in design, Proc DIS 2000, 145–154.

Webb, A., Kerne, A., Promoting reflection and interpretation in education: curating rich bookmarks as information composition, Proc ACM Creativity and Cognition, 2013, 53–62.

Miss Marshall, professor from TAMU tells a good story about the “heritage” from one student to another, that is, annotation or comments about the content (figure 1).

Figure 1. Annotation and comments about the content

She thinks the annotation is the fundamental aspect of hypertext. The value of the used book grows and changes by way of adding or modifying the annotation in the book. Experienced high level students are more willing to choose the used book which once belonged to someone clever. And the used books full with class notes are also popular. She mentions seven comparison between formal&informal annotation, explicit&tacit, writing&reading type, published& private, global&institutional&workgroup&personal, hyperextensive&extensive&intensive, permanent&transient. Miss Marshall then gives a experiment. She let students to find the patterns of the annotation and comments in the book. The conclusion is the n-way (n>2)consensus is more difficult than 2-way consensus.

By the way, it is interesting to find out the implement meaning in the annotation, which are not like what we think. The clear value to future readers and other readers considered it is valuable make the personal annotation ecological.

The above story is about writing on paper and what will happen when writing with computer or other Apps Professor Kumiyo Nakakoji move paper pattern to computer pattern. They think prior system for writing is not efficient because people can only write from up to bottom and when they want to see the prior paragraph, the only way is go up with mouse, which is linear. People can not make sense the connection between paragraphs or lines.

Figure 2. different layers

So, they want to do something to change the embarrassed situation. They design a system ART (Amplifying Representation Talkback). It contains ElementsMap, ElementEditor, DocumentViewer and LayerManager. Users put their design in two different layers, to be exact, two dimension. I really like the way the ART works. You make your design into pieces and then combine them. It leaves no abstract in user’s cognitive procedure.

Mr. Webb’s story is too serious for me to understand. And I try me best to make sense about large quantity of new terms. But it is inspired when you make out what happened. The same as Professor Kumiyo Nakakoji, they are not satisfied about the exist system. These genius developed their tool InfoComposer (Figure 3).

Figure 3. InfoComposer

They use Rich Bookmarks(navigable link to a web document) and curation(searching, collecting and reflecting etc. information) strategies to support student’s education. By doing several experiments, they conclude that InfoComposer is helpful in promoting divergent thinking and enriching student’s knowledge.

Figure 1 is from https://shass.mit.edu/news/news-2013-humanities-annotation-studio-empowers-readers-and-writers

Figure 2 is from http://zomg.wikia.com/wiki/Layers

Figure 3 is from Mr. Webb’s story