Tax incentives. Not correctly costing environmental damage caused by the industry, from direct damage (destruction of habitat, and pollution via spills etc), to long term environment damage (climate change). If the clean up of oil spills was correctly charged, including restoration of habitat, and loss of income, and life style, BP would be in receivership from the gulf spill. The insurance costs would push petroleum production through the roof. If mining companies were made pay for the dumping of industrial spoil, like most other industries are made pay, then mining also would become much more selective of the products they extract. Coal wouldn’t be on that list.