Thanks for the interesting article! One question:
“ The Kirovs use an unusual combination of nuclear and steam propulsion to generate a speed of 30 knots, while at the same time providing a backup in case of technical failures.”
All nuclear propulsion (and all nuclear reactor based energy generation) uses steam turbines: nuclear reactor produces heat, heat boils water into steam, steam drives turbines that drive the propulsion and/or create electricity. So the statement above is a bit confusing, it’s not unusual, it’s the only option? Do they perhaps have gas/oil-fired boilers as well (like the Kuznetsov-class carriers) in addition to the nuclear reactor(s)?