Hillary’s Emails for Dummies

a comprehensive guide to ServerGate

Hey Superdelegates! (And undecided California primary voters!)

Hillary Clinton’s email scandal is a liability. She’s tied head-to-head with Donald Trump, and the specter of an email-related October Surprise should have Democrats like you worried. Bernie Sanders has inched away from being “sick and tired of hearing about [her] damn emails” and is now asking voters to take a “hard look” at the scandal. Here’s your look.

A brief crash course:

While Secretary of State (2009–2013), Hillary Clinton exclusively used a personal email address on a private server. She emailed thousands of classified and SBU (Sensitive But Unclassified) documents through her unsecured server which led to “significant security risks.” At least 22 of her emails contained details of Top Secret “Special Access Programs.”

The FBI is investigating whether Clinton’s mishandling of classified information amounts to “violations of an Espionage Act subsection pertaining to ‘gross negligence’ in the safekeeping of national defense information.” Hillary Clinton’s former IT specialist, Brian Pagliano, has received immunity for his cooperation with the FBI. “[A]n intelligence source close to the case…called [Pagliano] a ‘devastating witness.’” A dozen FBI agents are working full-time on the case, and they have interviewed Clinton’s closest aids. Hillary Clinton is expected to be personally interviewed by the FBI before they decide whether or not to recommend an indictment to the Justice Department.

When Hillary Clinton resigned as Secretary of State in 2013, she didn’t hand over any work-related emails from her private server. 21 months later¹ Clinton delivered 30,490 work-related emails to the State Department, but deleted 31,830 other emails she claimed were of a personal nature. Her lawyer informed Congress that her private server was “wiped clean,” but after being confiscated by the FBI, some deleted emails were recovered that were work-related

Eight Myths about Hillary Clinton’s Email Scandal Debunked:

1.) Is Hillary’s email scandal a “vast right-wing conspiracy” made up by Republicans to derail her Presidential candidacy?

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: While Republicans opportunistically pile on the scandal, the majority of negative press generated about Hillary Clinton’s emails is coming from the FBI/Justice Department investigation, a letter to Congress sent by the Intelligence Community inspector general, and a scathing report by the State Department office of the inspector general (OIG).

Hillary Clinton’s campaign argues these investigations were instigated by “Republicans and their allies” with “anti-Clinton bias” and leaks are “coordinated” with Republicans. However, the Intelligence Community IG,³ State Department IG,⁴ and Attorney General of the Justice Department⁵ are all Democratic appointees of President Obama. The damning OIG report at the State Department was initiated by Clinton’s Democratic successor, John Kerry (another Obama appointee), and while FBI Director James Comey is a Republican that worked in George W. Bush’s Justice Department,⁶ he too was appointed by President Obama.

Furthermore, FOX NEWS (and conservative media) are not the only news organizations covering this story. USA TODAY said Hillary Clinton’s “reckless decision” to “[break] the rules,” led to “a threat to national security.” The Washington Post called her “inexcusable, willful disregard for the rules…troubling.” The New York Times (who endorsed Clinton) said the scandal will “fuel doubts about Mrs. Clinton’s trustworthiness.”

Even MSNBC reporters noted Clinton’s story “doesn’t hold up,” she appears to be “lying straight out,” and her email breach means she “couldn’t be confirmed for instance for Attorney General.” While it’s true conservative media relishes in any story that could possibly be critical of Hillary Clinton, it’s highly unlikely that MSNBC, an unapologetic liberal news station, is carrying water for a fake scandal manufactured by Republicans.⁷

2.) Did Hillary Clinton have permission from the State Department to exclusively use personal email on a private server?

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: At times Hillary Clinton has inferred she had permission from the State Department for her unorthodox email setup. In 2015 she stated “The truth is: everything I did was permitted” and “It was allowed by the State Department as they have confirmed.” That is harshly rebuked by the State Department inspector general’s report: “officials ‘did not — and would not — approve’ of such a practice…The report found that Clinton did not have the special legal permission her campaign has implied she had from the State Department to [exclusively] use a personal email on a private server.”⁸ Additionally “agency staff members would not have given their blessing if it had been sought because of ‘security risks.’”⁹

This year during the Univision Democratic debate, Hillary Clinton changed her story claiming: “There was no permission to be asked.” In stark contrast the State Department OIG report “faulted Clinton for not seeking permission.” Hillary Clinton had “an ‘obligation’ to discuss this [unique email setup with the State Department].”

“Staffers who raised concerns about Clinton’s use of email in late 2010 were told to stop talking about it. One staffer was told their mission was ‘to support the Secretary’ and ‘never to speak of the Secretary’s personal email again.’”¹⁰

3.) Aren’t the only rules Clinton broke rules that were clarified after she resigned?

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: Hillary Clinton defended her email practices by saying, “the rules were not clarified until after I had left [the State Department].” It’s true that new rules¹¹ regarding personal emails were instituted after Clinton left the State Department, but “clean-cut” rules were already in place which she violated¹² while serving as Secretary of State.

Hillary Clinton’s emails were not retained (they were “[stored in her private server and]…were never in federal custody”), not preserved (she “deleted roughly 30,000 emails,” some work-related), and because Clinton’s emails were not printed out and archived in a timely way, Clinton violated the Federal Records Act.¹³ (Her emails were turned over to the State Department over a year and a half after she resigned. Merely emailing co-workers at their .gov addresses did not suffice as record-keeping.)¹⁴

In late 2009, during her time as Secretary of State, “federal regulations were toughened to say that government agencies that allow employees to use nongovernment email accounts must ‘ensure that federal records sent or received on such systems are preserved in the appropriate agency record-keeping system.’” There may not have been “an explicit, categorical prohibition against federal employees using personal emails¹⁵ when Clinton was in office” but “it would have been a violation of the [National Archives and Records Administration] rules in the Code of Federal Regulations for Clinton to use personal email exclusively.’” She did.

“In June 2011 [while Hillary was Secretary of State], the State Department sent a cable under Clinton’s name to all posts…titled ‘Securing Personal E-mail Accounts,” [that] told diplomats: ‘Avoid conducting official [State] Department business from your personal email [because of targeting by Chinese hackers].” Clinton didn’t.

Even as early as 2005 the State Department’s Foreign Affairs Manual says “It is the Department’s general policy¹⁶ that normal day-to-day operations be conducted on an authorized [Automated Information System], which has the proper level of security control…” The State Department OIG report casts serious doubts on the security control of Hillary’s Clinton’s homebrew server. “[T]he undersecretary responsible for security [at the State Department], said they were not asked¹⁷ to approve or review the use of [Clinton’s] private server,”¹⁸ and “Secretary Clinton never demonstrated…that her private server or mobile device met minimum information security requirements.”

4.) Did Clinton turn over all her work-related emails?

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: Last year Hillary Clinton repeatedly stressed that she “provided [the State Department with] all [her] emails that could possibly be work-related.” She emphasized “We turned over everything that was work-related. Every. Single. Thing,” and Clinton promised “I went above and beyond what anybody could have expected in making sure that if the State Department didn’t capture something, I made a real effort to get it to them.” She was less than truthful.

“Clinton has said that she deleted roughly 30,000 emails stored on her server that she deemed of a personal and non-official nature…We now know that they included messages that were official in nature.” Ominously “The [State Department] inspector general noted that Clinton’s production of work-related emails was ‘incomplete.’” Later “The IG report identified…‘19 emails between Secretary Clinton and General David Petraeus on his official Department of Defense email account.’ None…were turned over to the State Department.” The OIG report also noted that Hillary was “missing not only…three [other] emails but numerous others covering Clinton’s first four months in office.” ¹⁹

Of the “three emails” specifically mentioned in the report, two referenced suspected hacks of Clinton’s private server, and the other quoted Clinton as wanting to avoid “any risk of the personal [email] being accessible [to oversight].” The security breach surrounding Hillary Clinton’s emails during her first few months in office as Secretary of State is difficult to overstate.

“Forbes reported that the server was likely unencrypted for the first three months Clinton was in office, which would have made it extremely vulnerable to hacking…Hillary Clinton was traveling in countries where Internet networks are set up to allow the state to perform eavesdropping — such as China — while the server was unsecured…”²⁰ The reason why emails from this period were not submitted to the State Department is unexplained.

5.) Did Clinton keep Top-Secret, classified emails on her private server?

Short Answer: Yes.

Long Answer: Hillary Clinton initially claimed “I did not email any classified material to anyone on my email” which evolved to “I never sent classified material on my email, and I never received any that were marked classified…”

“But government rules require senders of classified information to properly mark it. And the inspector general for the intelligence community has said that some of Clinton’s correspondence contained classified material when it was sent — even if it was not labeled.”

The excuse that theTop-Secret classified emails sent and received on her unprotected private server were not marked classified at the time is a distinction without a difference. Documents containing classified material are classified even if they are not marked, and the FBI is investigating if these classified docs were “cut and pasted” onto Clinton’s unclassified server.²¹

Clinton was likely aware she was skirting the laws of classification.

In another recently released email, Clinton instructed [a deputy chief] to convert a classified document into an unclassified email attachment by scanning it into an unsecured computer and sending it to her without any classified markings. ‘Turn into nonpaper w no identifying heading and send nonsecure,’ she ordered.”

The Intelligence Community inspector general told Congress 22 of Clinton’s emails contained details of Top-Secret Special Access Programs run by the CIA which were so classified that investigators had to seek special security clearances just to read them. None of Clinton’s emails had classified markings because they were being sent outside the secured, classified network.²²

6.) Was Clinton’s private server ever hacked?

Short Answer: Yes

Long Answer: Romanian hacker “Guccifer,” the first person to “expose” Hillary Clinton’s personal email address, was extradited to the U.S. in April for questioning by FBI investigators about Clinton’s private server. Guccifer claims he “gained access to [Clinton’s] ‘completely unsecured’ server,” and “it was easy.”

While Hillary Clinton’s campaign has insisted there’s no “evidence whatsoever that the server was hacked,” the State Department inspector general’s report details multiple instances in 2011 ²³ when Clinton and her staff feared her server had been breached. Clinton and her team “neglected repeated warnings about the security of the BlackBerry” — including a warning in writing calling it “vulnerable” — and rejected offers for a “state blackberry.” ²⁴

“Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates said in a recent interview he thinks ‘the odds are pretty high’ that hostile foreign powers like Iran, China and Russia hacked Clinton’s homebrew email server and stole US secrets.”

7.) Didn’t she do the exact same thing as previous Republican Secretaries of State?

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: Hillary Clinton has attempted to blunt criticisms of her email scandal by reiterating “my predecessors did the same thing.” POLITIFACT rules this defense “mostly false.” Colin Powell is the only other Secretary of State who regularly used a personal email and therefore the only comparable predecessor, and there are major differences between Clinton’s email use and Powell’s email use.

First, “Clinton hosted her email on a private server located in her home. Powell did not.” Second Clinton exclusively used her private email address. Powell did not (he also had a government email address). Third, Hillary Clinton sent and received thousands of classified emails (including 22 Top Secret emails that the Intelligence Community IG says “contained classified material when [they were] sent). In contrast there were only two retroactively “Confidential” emails that were “forwarded to Powell’s private email account…”

“The Wall Street Journal calculates that the total number of classified e-mails on Clinton’s server totaled 2,115. So, among ‘other Secretaries,’ the final score is: Albright 0; Powell 2; Rice 0; Clinton 2,115.”

Hillary Clinton’s exclusive personal email use on her own private server was not consistent with her predecessors.²⁵

8.) Wasn’t Clinton’s email setup just a “matter of convenience?”

Short Answer: No.

Long Answer: Hillary Clinton has described her decision to use a personal email on a private server in her home as a “matter of convenience,” but The Atlantic has said there is “nothing convenient about setting up a private email server,” and MSNBC’s political director concluded, “The idea of convenience: I’ve never been able to accept that.”

Hillary argues her setup was devised because she “thought it would be easier to carry just one device for my work and for my personal emails instead of two.” (Clinton carried two devices — an unsecured blackberry²⁶ and unsecured iPad to access her personal account.) The “State Department inspector general audit makes clear her email use ‘was not a casual oversight,’ and Clinton ‘ignored’ repeated warnings to use official communications.”

“Clinton’s main motive in setting up the e-mail system wasn’t to make it easier for her to receive all her messages in one place, or to do all her business on her beloved BlackBerry; it was to protect some of her correspondence — particularly correspondence she considered private — from freedom-of-information requests and other demands for details, for example, from Republican-run congressional committees.”²⁷

Conclusion:

The email scandal is a massive vulnerability for Hillary Clinton’s candidacy in the general election and should be considered by Democratic delegates and primary voters before the convention. Clinton’s excuses for her actions are paper-thin, and it’s clear Bernie Sanders would be a stronger, scandal-free nominee for Democrats this November to defeat Donald Trump. We must rally behind Bernie Sanders.

Loose ends:

  • The FBI investigation of Hillary Clinton is reported to have expanded to include public corruption. Foreign donations made to the Clinton Foundation are alleged to be connected to favors at the State Department.
  • A parallel FBI investigation is underway against former DNC chairman and 2008 Hillary Clinton campaign finance chairman, VA Gov. Terry McAuliffe. “Records show more than 100 donors contributed to both the [Clinton] foundation and McAuliffe’s [gubernatorial] campaign. Federal officials say investigators are looking at those overlaps and are especially interested in contributions from Wang Wenliang, a Chinese politician.”
  • Hillary Clinton claimed her 30,000 deleted personal emails “contains personal communications between my husband and me.” However, Bill Clinton publicly “suggested that he has only sent two emails in his life.”
  • Clinton repeatedly calls the FBI investigation into her handling of classified materials a “security review,” but the Director of the FBI asserted it is an active FBI investigation, and he is not familiar with the term “security review.”
  • Karl Rove illegally deleted way more work-related emails than Hillary Clinton, but justifying one’s behavior by comparing it to a precedent set by Karl Rove is a quite an unseemly defense.
  • Hillary declined to be interviewed (along with her staff) for the State Department inspector general’s report. Four other Secretaries of State agreed to interviews. Clinton’s campaign says she was “prioritizing” the FBI/Justice Department investigation.
  • Hillary Clinton is “sorry that this has been confusing to people.”²⁸ She says she’s “been as transparent as I know to be.”
  • 71% of Democrats think Hillary Clinton should continue campaigning even if she’s charged with a felony indictment. Maybe those Democrats haven’t read this article.

FOOTNOTES

¹ “Federal rules required Clinton to preserve work emails before she left office, but she did not turn over her emails until 21 months after she left office…Clinton was out of compliance with the regulations the day she left office.” Kiely, Eugene. FactCheck.org “More Spin on Clinton Emails.” September 8, 2015.

² “Clinton has said that she deleted roughly 30,000 emails stored on her server that she deemed of a personal and non-official nature. Neither the State Department nor the records agency has ever seen those emails. We now know that they included messages that were official in nature. The IG report identified a number of such emails to Gen. David Petraeus. ‘The Department of Defense provided to OIG in September 2015 copies of 19 emails between Secretary Clinton and General David Petraeus on his official Department of Defense email account.’ None of those 19 emails were turned over to the State Department. Other deleted Clinton emails included dispatches about the Libyan civil war and the Sept. 11, 2012, terrorist attacks on U.S. diplomatic facilities in the country.” Markay, Lachlan. Free Beacon. “Five State Department Rules That Hillary’s Email Practices Violated.” May 26, 2016.

³ Clinton campaign spokesman Brian Fallon says the Intelligence Community Inspector General (ICIG) “coordinated” with Republicans in January to leak “discredited” attacks against Hillary Clinton. The ICIG “told senators that he believes at least several dozen of emails Clinton sent and received while she was secretary of state contained classified material at the highest levels, according to a letter obtained by McClatchy.” ICIG Charles McCullough III “was nominated by President President Barack Obama…He was unanimously confirmed by the Senate Intelligence Committee that October. The full Senate agreed by unanimous consent in November. Sen. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat [and Hillary Clinton supporter] who used to head the intelligence committee, described McCullough as ‘well-qualified.’ ‘He has long experience conducting investigations both as an inspector general and a FBI agent,’ Feinstein said in a floor speech in November 2011. ‘He is an attorney and is well-familiar with the intelligence community.’” McClatchyDC. “Clinton campaign accuses Obama appointee of trying to smear Clinton.” January 20, 2016.

⁴ Clinton’s campaign says there’s “anti-Clinton bias” in the office of the State Department Inspector General (SDIG)…The campaign has “worked to inoculate her against potentially critical findings, accusing the State Department’s inspector general of working in concert with congressional Republicans to harm her presidential campaign and noting that a top inspector general official used to work for Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa)”…but the SDIG,Steve Linick, was appointed by President Obama and has served since 2013.” His report on State Department email use “was undertaken at the direction of Clinton’s Democratic successor, Kerry.” One former Republican staffer is unlikely responsible for shaping the results of an OIG report overseen by a Democratic appointee and initiated by a Democratic Secretary of State. Kamisar, Ben. The Hill. “Clinton spox questions timing of email investigation report.” May 25, 2016. / Hamburger, Tom & Rosalind S. Helderman. The Washington Post. “State Dept. inspector general report sharply criticizes Clinton’s email practices.” May 25, 2016.

⁵ “Attorney General Loretta Lynch said the FBI is still investigating Hilary Clinton’s private email server…I’m sure you know that matter is being handled by career, independent, law enforcement agents, FBI agents, as well as the career, independent attorneys in the Department of Justice,’ Lynch said. ‘They follow the evidence, they look at the law and they’ll make a recommendation to me when the time is appropriate…’” Heretik, Jack. The Washington Free Beacon. “Lynch: FBI Is Still Investigating Clinton’s Email Issues.” February 24, 2016.

⁶ Though a Republican from the George W. Bush Administration, FBI Director James Comey is known for pushing back against Bush’s policies. “Because of Ashcroft’s illness, Comey — then deputy attorney general — was temporarily in charge of the Justice Department. When he refused to re-authorize a broad warrantless electronic surveillance program the department had determined was illegal, two top Bush aides — Andrew Card and Alberto Gonzales — headed to the hospital to try to convince the delirious Ashcroft to sign off. Comey, tipped off, beat them there. In stopping the program, and saying no ‘when the Bush administration wanted to act like the rule of law was inconvenient,’ says Ambinder, Comey ‘pissed off the White House, many of his own colleagues, made an enemy of Dick Cheney for life, and earned plaudits from civil libertarians as a liberal-minded man of the people.’” Weber, Peter. The Week. “James Comey: Why Obama wants a Republican to be FBI chief.” May 30, 2013. / Ambinder, Marc. The Week. “Jim Comey’s Shining Moment.” May 29, 2013.

⁷ During a single 10min segment of “Morning Joe,” MSNBC reporter Andrea Mitchell (who‘s been called a Clinton “lapdog”) said Hillary’s misrepresentations about her emails are “indefensible” and her story “doesn’t hold up.” MSNBC political director Chuck Todd said Clinton’s email security breach means she “couldn’t be confirmed for instance for Attorney General,” and MSNBC host Mika Brzezinski said “It feels like [Clinton’s] lying straight out.” Morning Joe, MSNBC. May 26, 2016. / Drennen, Kyle. NewsBusters. “Juanita Broaddrick Slams Andrea Mitchell as ‘Lapdog for Hillary Clinton.’” May 20, 2016.

⁸ “The [State Department] report said had she notified the appropriate offices, they would not have approved her ‘exclusive reliance’ on a personal account.” Herridge, Catherine. FOX NEWS. “Clinton campaign’s email defense takes hits from all sides after IG report.” May 26, 2016.

⁹ “Clinton failed to seek legal approval for her use of a private server and that agency staff members would not have given their blessing if it had been sought because of ‘security risks.’” Hamburger, Tom & Rosalind S. Helderman. The Washington Post. “State Dept. inspector general report sharply criticizes Clinton’s email practices.” May 25, 2016.

¹⁰ “The 79-page report faulted Clinton for not seeking permission to use a personal email account and server, noting the investigation found ‘no evidence that the Secretary requested or obtained guidance or approval to conduct official business via a personal email account on her private server.’ Department officials ‘did not — and would not — approve’ of such a practice, the report added…In one particularly scathing account, the report reveals that technology staffers who raised concerns about Clinton’s use of email in late 2010 were told to stop talking about it. One staffer was told their mission was ‘to support the Secretary’ and ‘never to speak of the Secretary’s personal email again,’ according to the report…Her emailing controversy has been in the news for months, and after initially resisting, Clinton ultimately apologized for the way she handled her communications. The report found that Clinton did not have the special legal permission her campaign has implied she had…” Halper, Evan. Los Angeles Times. “Hillary Clinton broke the rules for using private email, State Department says.” May 25, 2016.

¹¹ After Clinton resigned “the National Archives issued a recommendation that government employees should avoid conducting official business on personal emails” and “in 2014, President Barack Obama signed changes to the Federal Records Act that explicitly said federal officials can only use personal email addresses if they also copy or send the emails to their official account.” Though these rules did not apply to Clinton, it’s worthy to note: she had no official (.gov) email account and communicated exclusively with her personal email on a private server. Carroll, Lauren. POLITIFACT. “Hillary Clinton’s email: Did she follow all the rules?” March 12, 2015. Schmidt, Michael. New York Times. “Hillary Clinton Used Personal Email Account at State Dept., Possibly Breaking Rules.” March 2, 2015.

¹² “Another staffer warned that Clinton was sending and receiving emails that should be preserved to comply with open records laws. The staffer was told ‘that the Secretary’s personal system had been reviewed and approved by Department legal staff and that the matter was not to be discussed any further,’ according to the report. The inspector general’s office found no evidence that any such legal review had been done.” Halper, Evan. Los Angeles Times. “Hillary Clinton broke the rules for using private email, State Department says.” May 25, 2016.

¹³ “At a minimum, Secretary Clinton should have surrendered all emails dealing with Department business before leaving government service and, because she did not do so, she did not comply with the Department’s policies that were implemented in accordance with the Federal Records Act.” Vicens, AJ. Mother Jones. “State Department Inspector General Finds Hillary Clinton Violated Recordkeeping Rules.” May 25, 2016.

¹⁴ “The emails appear to contain work-related passages, raising questions about why they were not turned over to the State Department last year. The inspector general noted that Clinton’s production of work-related emails was ‘incomplete,’ missing not only the three emails but numerous others covering Clinton’s first four months in office.” Additionally “Secretary Clinton’s representative asserted that, because the Secretary emailed Department officials at their government email accounts, the Department already had records of the Secretary’s email preserved within its recordkeeping systems. ‘As previously discussed, however, sending emails from a personal account to other employees at their Department accounts is not an appropriate method of preserving any such emails that would constitute a Federal record.’” Again: “Clinton claims that the fact she was sending emails to federal employees using official email accounts meant that those emails were being archived properly. The IG rejected that explanation and concluded that Clinton had violated rules on the preservation of federal records. ‘Secretary Clinton should have preserved any Federal records she created and received on her personal account by printing and filing those records with the related files in the Office of the Secretary,’ the IG wrote.” AP. Fortune. “The Origin of Key Clinton Emails From the Inspector General Report Is a Mystery.” May 27, 2016. / Collins, Eliza. USA Today. “Six key excerpts from the State Dept. report on Clinton’s emails.” May 25, 2016. / Markay, Lachlan. Free Beacon. “Five State Department Rules That Hillary’s Email Practices Violated.” May 26, 2016.

¹⁵ “There was not an explicit, categorical prohibition against federal employees using personal emails when Clinton was in office…High-level officials like Clinton need the flexibility to sometimes use a personal email, such as responding to a national security emergency in the middle of the night. So it seems she didn’t break a rule simply by using a personal email to conduct business. Rather, by using personal emails exclusively, she skirted the rules governing federal records management…” Carroll, Lauren. POLITIFACT. “Hillary Clinton’s email: Did she follow all the rules?” March 12, 2015

¹⁶ “It is the Department’s general policy that normal day-to-day operations be conducted on an authorized [Automated Information System], which has the proper level of security control to provide nonrepudiation, authentication and encryption, to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the resident information…” Recently the State Department affirmed that the 2005 policy was in effect during Clinton’s tenure but applied only to [Sensitive But Unclassified] emails. The OIG found “emails exchanged on her personal account regularly contained information marked as SBU” and “[a]t least 1,730 emails that Hillary Clinton sent or received [on her personal email] contained classified material.” Gerstein, Josh. Politico. “Clinton private email violated ‘clear-cut’ State Dept. rules.” March 5, 2015. / McClatchyDC. “At least 1,730 Clinton emails contain classified material.” February 16, 2016.

¹⁷ “‘Where warranted by the nature of the information, employees who will be transmitting SBU information outside of the Department network on a regular basis to the same official and/or most personal addresses, must contact the [information security officials] for guidance in implementing a secure technical solution for those transmissions.’ — State Department Foreign Affairs Manual.” Markay, Lachlan. Free Beacon. “Five State Department Rules That Hillary’s Email Practices Violated.” May 26, 2016.

¹⁸ “According to interviews with officials in the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the Bureau of Information Resource Management, Clinton would have had to ‘discuss using her personal email account to conduct official business with their offices, who in turn would have attempted to provide her with approved and secured means that met her business needs.’ But those officials said they approved no such setup because of department rules and the inherent security risks.” Additionally “The inspector general found that Mrs. Clinton ‘had an obligation to discuss using her personal email account to conduct official business’ with department officials but that, contrary to her claims that the department ‘allowed’ the arrangement, there was ‘no evidence’ she had requested or received approval for it…” Gass, Nick. Politico. “The 9 biggest revelations in the State IG report on Clinton’s emails.” May 25, 2016. / Lichtblau, Eric & Steven Lee Meyers. The New York Times. “Hillary Clinton Is Criticized for Private Emails in State Dept. Review.” May 25, 2016.

¹⁹ “Clinton has said that she deleted roughly 30,000 emails stored on her server that she deemed of a personal and non-official nature. Neither the State Department nor the records agency has ever seen those emails. We now know that they included messages that were official in nature. The IG report identified a number of such emails to Gen. David Petraeus. ‘The Department of Defense provided to OIG in September 2015 copies of 19 emails between Secretary Clinton and General David Petraeus on his official Department of Defense email account.’ None of those 19 emails were turned over to the State Department.” IG: “[The emails Clinton turned over] included no email covering the first few months of Secretary Clinton’s tenure — from January 21, 2009, to March 17, 2009, for received messages, and from January 21, 2009 to April 12th 2009 for sent messages.” Markay, Lachlan. Free Beacon. “Five State Department Rules That Hillary’s Email Practices Violated.” May 26, 2016. / Walker, Hunter. Business Insider. “Why did Hillary Clinton delete about 30,000 emails?” March 10, 2015. / State Department Office of Inspector General report. May 23, 2016

²⁰ “Kevin Bocek, a researcher at the Internet security firm Venafi — who discovered the gap in security — said in a blog post that the server that ran the Clintons’ clintonemail.com had no digital certificate when it was first online in early 2009. (Digital certificates help web browsers and smartphones tell if servers are really what they claim to be, Bocek explained.) Although clintonemail.com now has a certificate, Bocek said the greater concern is that someone could have acquired the Clintons’ passwords while the server had no certificate.” Vinton, Kate. Forbes. “Clinton’s Email Server Was Unencrypted For Three Months, Researchers Say.” March 11, 2015.

²¹ “The FBI is investigating whether members of Hillary Clinton’s inner circle ‘cut and pasted’ material from the government’s classified network so that it could be sent to her private email address, former State Department security officials say…It takes a very conscious effort to move a classified email or cable from the classified systems over to the unsecured open system and then send it to Hillary Clinton’s personal email account…The classified markings are gone, but the content is classified at the highest levels — and so sensitive in nature that ‘it would have been obvious to Clinton.’” Sperry, Paul. New York Post. “Hillary’s team copied intel off top-secret server to email.” January 24, 2016.

²² “What Clinton doesn’t want you to know: Federal rules put the onus on government officials like the Secretary of State to protect classified material, even when it’s not marked as such. Government officials have been convicted of mishandling unmarked classified material. Any chain of events or excuses that led to the disclosure of these documents begins with Clinton’s decision to go rogue with government email.” Fournier, Ron. The National Journal. “Parsing Clinton: Deflection, Deception, and Untruths.”

²³ “‘We were attacked again so I shut [the server] down for a few min.,’ Clinton Foundation alumnus and technical aide Justin Cooper wrote Hillary’s then-deputy chief of staff, Huma Abedin, in January 2011. Abedin warned colleagues the next day not to send Hillary ‘anything sensitive.’ That May 13, two of Clinton’s staffers discussed Hillary’s concerns that someone was ‘hacking into her e-mail.’ The report adds, ‘OIG found no evidence that the Secretary or her staff reported these incidents to computer security personnel or anyone else within the department.’” Murdock, Deroy. New York Post. “Team Hillary’s email defense is just laughable.” June 3, 2016.

²⁴ “‘State Department security officials were distressed about the possibility that Clinton’s BlackBerry could be compromised and used for eavesdropping.’ Soon after Clinton became Secretary of State, they expressed that distress in a February 2009 meeting with Chief of Staff Cheryl Mills, a longtime Clinton loyalist. In a March memo to Clinton herself, Assistant Secretary for Diplomatic Security Eric Boswell wrote that, ‘I cannot stress too strongly … that any unclassified Blackberry is highly vulnerable.’ The second thing that becomes clear is that these security experts ran into a brick wall of longtime Clinton aides whose priority was not security, but rather her desire for privacy and convenience. ‘From the earliest days,’ writes O’Harrow Jr., ‘Clinton aides and senior officials focused intently on accommodating the secretary’s desire to use her private email account’ and in so doing ‘neglected repeated warnings about the security of the BlackBerry.’ In August 2011, when the State Department’s executive secretary Stephen Mull broached the idea of replacing Clinton’s personal Blackberry with a ‘Department issued’ one, Clinton’s Deputy Chief of Staff and close personal aide, Huma Abedin, replied that the ‘state blackberry…doesn’t make a whole lot of sense.’” Beinart, Peter. The Atlantic. “The Real Scandal of Hillary Clinton’s Emails.” May 27, 2016.

²⁵ “Powell says he set up a private e-mail account, in addition to his internal account, because at the time, the State Department ‘email system in place only only permitted communication among Department staff…Three things have changed pretty dramatically since Powell’s day: the magnitude (and appreciation) of cybersecurity threats; the quality of the State Department systems; and the government rules surrounding both recordkeeping and cybersecurity…The OIG found only three instances in which State employees had relied exclusively on personal e-mail: Powell, Clinton and Ambassador J. Scott Gration, the U.S. emissary to Kenya from 2011 to 2012. Gration, who served under Clinton, was in the middle of a disciplinary process initiated against him for this e-mail use (among other things) when he resigned.” McArdle, Megan. Bloomberg. “Clinton’s Email Shenanigans Sure Don’t Look Like An Honest Mistake.” May 25, 2016.

²⁶ “The FBI’s case against a BlackBerry-obsessed Hillary Clinton could be strengthened following a bombshell report she ignored State Department and spy community warnings her outdated phone and private email server posed national security risks, former federal prosecutors and officials told the Herald.” Stout, Matt. The Boston Herald. “BlackBerry-crazed Hillary Clinton ignored warnings about email security.” March 29, 2016.

²⁷ “Clinton has repeatedly said that she set up her private e-mail system for the sake of convenience. The new report details an e-mail exchange from November, 2010, between Clinton and Huma Abedin, her deputy chief of staff. Abedin told her boss, ‘We should talk about putting you on state email or releasing your email address to the department so you are not going to spam.’ (Apparently, some messages from Clinton’s private account were being intercepted by the department’s spam filter.) Clinton replied to Abedin, ‘Let’s get separate address or device but I don’t want any risk of the personal being accessible.’ Those seventeen words seem to confirm what many observers have suspected from the outset: Clinton’s main motive in setting up the e-mail system wasn’t to make it easier for her to receive all her messages in one place, or to do all her business on her beloved BlackBerry; it was to protect some of her correspondence — particularly correspondence she considered private — from freedom-of-information requests and other demands for details, for example, from Republican-run congressional committees.” Cassidy, John. The New Yorker. “SEVENTEEN WORDS THAT SPELLED TROUBLE FOR HILLARY CLINTON.” May 26, 2016.

²⁸ “For months, Mrs. Clinton tried to minimize or dismiss the matter [of her personal email on a private server for official business]…when asked last week by NBC News if she was sorry, she…[added] that she was ‘sorry that this has been confusing to people.’” Meckler, Laura. Wall Street Journal. “Hillary Clinton Apologizes for Email Setup as Secretary of State.” September 8, 2015.