Joint statement on contact tracing for Norway

Coronavirus (Source: CDC)

Echoing the statement¹ signed by hundreds of scientists and researchers from across the globe, this statement reflects the view of the undersigned Norwegian technology, security and privacy experts. It is the result of many discussions, where we sought to balance important requirements and values. Our main goal has been to contribute with a unifying, realistic and constructive proposal. We believe this proposal shows a path that answers substantial concerns, and outlines a solution that will receive public support.

The current Coronavirus crisis is unprecedented, and we support innovative ways of fighting the pandemic with the aid of technology. However, we are concerned that the current mobile app solution Smittestopp that is being offered in Norway to address the crisis, can result in an unprecedented surveillance of our society. The contribution of the app is yet unproven, unlike actions such as testing and social distancing. We urge the authorities to migrate to a solution that is less privacy invasive.

Contact tracing is a well-understood tool to tackle epidemics, and has traditionally been done manually. However, manual contact tracing is time-consuming and is limited to people who can be identified.

In some situations, so-called “contact tracing apps” on smartphones can improve the effectiveness of the manual contact tracing technique. These apps would allow individuals with whom an infected person had physical interaction to be notified, and enable them to take recommended actions such as quarantine or getting tested.

In this context the Norwegian Institute of Public Health has launched a contact tracing solution to improve the effectiveness of the manual contact tracing technique. The app works by registering the identity of other nearby phones using Bluetooth and collecting movements of the phone using geolocation data in a central server. Unlike solutions from other countries, the Norwegian Smittestopp solution collects data to research the spread of the disease and the effect of actions by health authorities in addition to tracing infections. While the effectiveness of contact tracing apps is contested, it is especially important to ensure that those implemented preserve the privacy of their users, thus safeguarding against many other issues.

Collecting data about the whole population, both those infected by Covid-19 and those not, challenges trust in and acceptance of such a solution by society at large. It is crucial that citizens trust the solution in order to produce sufficient uptake to make a difference in tackling the crisis. It is vital that in coming out of the current crisis, we have not created a tool that enables large scale data collection on the population or laid ground for acceptance of such after the pandemic. Thus, solutions which allow reconstruction of invasive information about the population should be rejected. Such information can include the “social graph” of who someone has physically met over a period of time as well as the locations every person in Norway has visited.

With access to the social graph and location history, a bad actor (state, private sector, or hacker) could spy on citizens’ real-world activities. Norway is seeking to build a system which could enable them to access and process this social graph. On the other hand, highly decentralised systems have no distinct entity that can learn anything about the social graph. In such systems, matching between users who have the disease and those who do not, is performed on the non-infected users’ phones as close to anonymously as possible, while information about non-infected users is not revealed at all.

To aid the development of contact tracing without a centrally controlled database that holds personal information about individuals, Google and Apple are developing APIs on Android and iOS to support the required Bluetooth operations in a privacy preserving manner directly. Teams building the privacy protective schemes fully support this effort as it simplifies — and thus speeds up — the ability to develop contact tracing apps. We applaud this collaborative initiative, and the development teams migrating to it. We always caution against collecting private information of people using any service.

It is worth noting that the European Parliament on April 17th recommended a decentralized approach, pointing out by overwhelming majority “that […] the generated data are not to be stored in centralised databases, which are prone to potential risk of abuse and loss of trust and may endanger uptake throughout the Union” and demanding “that all storage of data be decentralised”². The Norwegian solution is also incompatible with the EDPB (European Data Protection Board) guidelines for contact tracing apps³.

The words of Wojciech Wiewiórowski, European Data Protection Supervisor, bear repeating: “Humanity does not need to commit to a trade-off between privacy and data protection from one side, and public health, on the other. Democracies in the age of Covid-19 must and can have them both”⁴.

There are a number of proposals for contact tracing methods which respect users’ privacy to a higher degree, many of which are being actively investigated for deployment by different countries. We encourage the Norwegian Institute of Public Health to migrate to and only rely on a system that is privacy preserving by design (instead of there being an expectation that they will be managed by a trustworthy party) and that is subject to public scrutiny, as a means to ensure that the citizen’s data protection rights are upheld.

The following principles should be adopted going forward:

  • Split into two apps: Usage of data for research which is beyond collecting locally stored contact tracing information must be optional, be collected by a separate application and be subject to the explicit consent of the user. In addition to giving a clear separation between the purpose of contact tracing and the purpose of research, this will also enable the use of the Exposure Notification API announced by Google and Apple for contact tracing at the OS level
  • Data minimization: Contact tracing apps must only be used to trace contact between individuals to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The contact tracing app must not collect, process, or transmit more data than what is necessary to achieve this purpose. A companion research app may collect additional data for research purposes subject to user consent.
  • Transparency: The governance and technical implementation must be fully transparent. The protocols and their implementations, including configuration of components provided by third parties, must be available for public scrutiny. The processed data and if, how, where, and for how long they are stored must be documented unambiguously. Such data collected should be minimal for the given purpose. There must be transparency into the governing processes for contact tracing apps during this crisis, and for its potential use in future crises.
  • Privacy by design: When multiple options to implement a certain component or functionality of the solution exist, the most privacy-preserving option must be chosen. Deviations from this principle are only permissible if this is demonstrably necessary to achieve the purpose of the solution, and must be clearly justified with sunset provisions.

Footnotes:

1: Joint Statement on Contact Tracing: Date 19th April 2020: https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/sites/contact-tracing-joint-statement/

2: EU coordinated action to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2020-0054_EN.pdf

3. EDPB guidelines on contact tracing tools in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak: https://edpb.europa.eu/sites/edpb/files/files/file1/edpb_guidelines_20200420_contact_tracing_covid_with_annex_en.pdf

4: Carrying the torch in times of darkness: https://edps.europa.eu/press-publications/press-news/blog/carrying-torch-times-darkness_en

This statement was initiated by Johannes Brodwall, Trond Arve Wasskog and Simen Sommerfeldt

Signed — in alphabetical order

Anders Norås, CTO, Itera

Are Hellandsvik, Research Scientist SINTEF Digital

Arve Føyen, Partner in Føyen Torkildsen AS, and Chairman of the IT- policy Board of the Norwegian Computer Society

Audun Fauchald Strand, Principal Engineer, NAV

Bendik Bygstad, Professor, IFI, University of Oslo

Bente Kalsnes, Associate Professor, Department of Communication, Kristiania University College

Bjørn Villa, PhD Adjunct associate professor, NTNU

Britt Lysaa, Technology Architect

Cathrine Pihl Lyngstad, Head of AI/data science, NAV

Cecilie Rønnevik, Lawyer

Christian Torp, Secretary General, the Norwegian Computer Society

Dana Jaedicke, Privacy and data protection legal adviser

Erlend Oftedal, CTO, Blank and Chapter Lead OWASP Norway

Espen Andersen, Associate Professor, Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, BI Norwegian Business School

Espen Dalløkken, Programmer, VIBBIO AS

Gunnar R Tjomlid, CEO and web developer, Thin AS

Hallvard Nygård, Security researcher

Henrik Walker Moe, Security Practice Lead, Bekk

Jarle Pahr, Master of Technology

Johannes Brodwall, Principal Software Engineer, Sopra Steria AS

Johannes Dvorak Lagos, Principal Engineer Mobile, Bouvet Norge as

Johannes Odland, Master of Technology

Jon Iden, Professor. NHH Norwegian School of Economics

Jonas Follesø, CTO, Blueye Robotics

Jan-Erik Vinje, Managing Director, Open AR Cloud Association

John Krogstie, Professor at the Department of Computer Science. NTNU

Jon Wessel-Aas, Lawyer, admitted to the Supreme Court bar

Kirill Miazine, Lawyer, Programmer

Lee A. Bygrave, Professor of Law, University of Oslo

Lillian Røstad, PhD, Managing Director Business Consulting, Sopra Steria and Associate professor, University of Oslo

Maria Bartnes, Research Director, SINTEF / Adjunct Associate Professor, NTNU

Marit Tokle, Software Engineer, Sopra Steria

Martin Bekkelund, Director of Product and Business Development, Technology Expert

Martha Eike, Security practitioner

Merete Asak, CTO Cisco Systems Norway

Morten Dalsmo, Executive Vice President, SINTEF Digital

Nikolai Norman Andersen, Data Protection Officer, Confrere

Nils Norman Haukås, Technologist, Netlife Design AS

Ole Andreas Engen, Professor, Universitetet i Stavanger

Patricia Aas, CTO, TurtleSec AS

Per Thorsheim, Digital Authentication Expert

Ragnvald Sannes, Senior Lecturer, Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, BI Norwegian Business School

Salve J. Nilsen, Chairman, Norway Chapter of the Internet Society

Silvija Seres, Mathematician and technology investor

Simen Bakke, Senior Information Security Advisor

Simen Sommerfeldt, CTO, Bouvet, author “Personvern og GDPR i praksis”

Sirar Salih, CEO, Winterfell.tech® AS, Microsoft Azure MVP

Steinar Grøtterød, Board Member Norwegian Chapter of the Internet Society

Toril Nag, Executive Vice President of Telecom at Lyse, Chairman of the board, ICT Norway

Thomas Gøytil, Head of Security, Klaveness Digital

Thor Henning Hetland, Community Manager Cantara, CTO Sunstone AS

Torbjørn Karl Svendsen, Director, NTNU Digital

Torgeir Waterhouse, Partner, Otte

Trond Arve Wasskog, CTO, Bekk

Truls Jørgensen, Principal Engineer, NAV

William Dennett, Director International Projects, Metier

Signed by form — in chronological order

Per Øivind Skard, Partner, Otte AS

Jon Are Rakvåg, Security architect, SpareBank 1 Utvikling

Ragnar Westad, Chief Consultant, Experis Ciber

Bjørn Reppen, Programmer

Magnus Sundal, Senior development Engineer, Data Respons R&D Services AS

Mike Long, Founder and CEO, ComplianceDB

Halvor Sakshaug, Application Security Lead, Confirmit

Ove Gram Nipen, Principal consultant, Kantega

Anders Bruvik, Tech Team Lead, Chairman of the board for Devops Norway

Thomas Steen, Programmer dspnor

Lars-Erik Aabech, Lead Developer, MarkedsPartner AS

Maja Enes, Frilanser og skribent, FRK.ENES

Iris Krossbakken, Avdelingsleder, Bouvet

Ruben Solvang, Skyfritt AS

Louise Helliksen, CEO, ME Data AS

Gemma Anible, Senior Software Engineer, WonderNorway AS

Øyvin Halfdan Thuv, Assistant Professor in Computer Engineering, UiT

Ole-Morten Duesund, Partner, Odin Prosjekt AS

Morten Linderud, Open-Source developer, security engineer

Marius Agur Hagelund Lind, Technology Specialist, Marius Agur Consulting

Tobias Brox, Leader Pirat Party Oslo

Arne Krossbakken, System Administrator, Bouvet

Tobias Mahler, Professor of Law, University of Oslo

Hans Petter Eide, App developer/independent consultant, Zeros & Ones AS

Siv Midtun Hollup, Developer, Kantega AS and Associate Professor, Dept of Informatics, University of Bergen

Helge René Urholm, Lead developer

Rune Flobakk, Developer, Bekk

Gustav Aagesen, Chief Data Officer, Lånekassen

Dea-Renate Lunde, Miranda IT team lead, Norwegian Humanist Association

Johan Herland, Software Engineer, Cisco Systems Norway

Tomas Ekeli, Customer Success Lead, Dolittle

Chris Searle, Chief Consultant, Itera

André Savik, programmerer

Inger Hesthammer, Sykepleier

Bjarte M, Test manager

Terje Løken, EVP Digital & Innovation, Storebrand

Anders Sandvik, Software Engineer

Knut Petter Meen, Chief Architect

Eirik Løvmark Wang, Software Architect, Bredvid

Marius Engh Pellerud Senior, Consultant in Transcendent Group and co-author of Kommentarutgave Personopplysningsloven og personvernforordningen (GDPR)

Vegard Andreas Larsen, CTO, Digital Creations AS

Tjerand Silde, PhD Candidate in Cryptography at NTNU

Øystein Ivar Malt, Front-end Architect, Dataloy Systems AS

Torjus Sæthre, Software Engineer, Bredvid

Aleksander Wassum, Practice lead User Experience, Bredvid AS

Thomas Malt, CTO, Knowit Objectnet

Anja Schönhaug, Head of education

Tore Sætre Prosjektleder IKT, Setre Consulting

Thomas Lie-Gjeseth, Frontend designer/developer, Netlife

Leo Valen, Technology advisor and developer, Null AS

Tommy Jocumsen, CPO Dataplattform, NAV

Wallace Sidhrée, Senior Frontend Developer, Netlife

Atle Frenvik Sveen, Software Developer / PhD Candidate

Eirik Eide Head, of IT architecture, Statens pensjonskasse

Erik Hjelmås, Associate professor, Department of Information Security and Communication Technology, NTNU

Thorbjørn Hermansen, Developer Skalar AS

Marko Schulz, Programmer

Silje Bjølseth Amundsen, Senior Infrastructure Engineer, Sopra Steria

Ulrik Fredrik Thyve, Privacy professional

Tor Olav Grøtan, Senior Research Scientist, SINTEF Digital and Associate Professor, NTNU

Christian Torset, Gruppeleder SV, Nordland Fylkesting

Pavneet Singh Saund, Senior Developer, Dolittle AS. Chapter Lead NNUG Vestfold

Brynje Nordli, Principal Software Engineer, Telia Norge AS

Espen Antonsen, Founder MakePlans

Håvard Pedersen, System developer

Nadine Caillé Nesheim. Digital Transformation Lead, Storebrand

Arve Systad, Developer/Senior consultant, Aurum AS

Camilla Grøneng, Director Architecture and Security, CGI

Bjørn Remseth, Deputy chairman, Electronic Frontier Norway (efn.no).

Erlend Opdahl, Operations Bekk Consulting

Andreas Lyth, Student

Runar Bell, Software Engineer, JProfessionals

Glenn F. Henriksen, CTO, Justify

Runa Sandvik, Security researcher

Christian Mohn, Chief Technologist SDDC, Proact IT Norge AS

Tor Christian Tovslid, Platform Architect, Husbanken

Thomas Kjeldahl Nilsson, Independent Android software developer

Andreas Beining, CEO, Beining & Bogen

Henriette Høyer, Kommunikasjonsdirektør Bouvet

Trond Marius Øvstetun, Senior developer, Zenior

Jonathan P. Camp, CSO, Intelecy AS

Øystein Amundsen, System developer, Bouvet AS

David Sommerseth, basenordic AS

Line Moseng Developer, NAV

Max Lauritz Øyen, Student, UiO

John Marius Solli, Data Protection Officer

Per-Kristian Helland, Software Engineer, Clave Consulting

Asbjørn Berge, Senior Scientist, SINTEF Digital

Tore Vestues, CTO, Variant AS

Gunnar A. Reinseth, Programmer, Kongsberg Maritime AS

Marius Gundersen, Konsulent, Clave

Christoffer Schjelderup, Komiker

Richard Sundby Anderssen, Senior Systems Developer/Consultant, Novanet A/S

Robin Lunde, Security Engineer, LINE Corporation

Kim Arthur Sakariassen, Seniorkonsulent, ATEA

Arild Strømhylden, Senior consultant, Miles

Karianne Berg, CTO Kaukus

Steinar H. Gunderson, M.Sc.

Sturla Bakke, Associate Professor, Department of Technology, Kristiania University College

Erlend Halvorsen, Owner, Peopleware AS

Fabriece Sumuni, CTO, K30 GROUP AS

Martin Smevik, Konsulent, Bouvet

Hans Ekkehard Plesser, Professor in informatics, Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Lars-Jørgen Kristiansen, Senior Developer

Dr. Tage Stabell-Kulø, Tech lead, analytics & user surveillance, Police ICT services

Bjørnar Snoksrud, Software Developer, Cisco System AS

Jon Grov, Owner, Gauge

Fredrik L. Andersen, Regional Sales Manager Norway & Iceland, Palo Alto Networks

Dervis Mansuroglu, Principal Officer, NAV

Bård Lind, IoT Architect, Privacy Enthusiast

Anders Breivik, Seniorkonsulent, Knowit AS

Enrico Razzetti, Linux platform developer and site reliability engineer

Christer V. Aas, Technical Product Manager, Urban Sharing

Bjørn Asle Taranger, Senior Consultant, Miles AS

Simen Fure Jørgensen, Chief Product Officer, Otovo

Frode Klevstul, CTO, Kursiver.no

Torunn Aardal, Private/freelance

Fredrik Grindland, Project Manager

Steinar Auensen, Security & Network Engineer

Elisabeth Guillot, Senior advisor, Unit — The Norwegian Directorate for ICT and Joint Services in Higher Education and Research

Jan Ove Skogheim, CEO, Elefant Software AS

Erik Wendel, Fagsjef, Bekk

Vegard Edvardsen, Research Scientist, Telenor Research

Omar R. Langset, Deputy CTO, Altibox

Olve Maudal, Senior Advisor, Equinor

Paul Nyheim, Senior Software Developer, Signicat

Vegard Strømsøy, Konsulent, Bouvet

Tor Vigesdal, Senior Security Advisor

Magnus Haraldsen Amundsen, Head of Software Engineering, SG Finans AS

Vigdis Westby, Seniorkonsulent, Diku

Carl Christian Grøndahl, Konsulent, Bouvet

Jan-Petter Krüger, Software Architect

Eva Nordskog, Kommunikasjonsansvarlig, Trainor Elsikkerhet AS

Jan Høydahl, Search Solution Architect, Cominvent AS

Thomas Fredriksen, Consultant, Bouvet

Reidar M Sollid, Principal Consultant, Inmeta Consulting A/S

Tarjei Romtveit, CTO, Klaveness Digital

Darija Sapozenkova-Hauge, Sjefskonsulent og teamleder i Experis Ciber AS

Maria Helena Høivik, CTO Globalvoice

Stig Bakken, Principal Software Engineer, TietoEVRY

Sigurd Ljødal, Developer, Kolonial.no

Jan-Erik Carlsen, Senior Software Engineer, GoDaddy

Stig Strøm, Developer, Rejlers Embriq

Haakon Nore, Sivilingeniør Kommunikasjonsteknologi, Selvstendig næringsdrivende

Håkon K. Olafsen, Senior Adviser

Kjetil Klaussen, Team Lead, Sentinel Software

Øyvind Møller Asbjørnsen, Principal Delivery Architect

Ole Jakob Schjøth, Programmer, Independent

Anders Bondehagen, CEO, Nortero AS

Håkon Åmdal, Software Engineer, Spacemaker AI

Stein A.J. Møllerhaug, Principal Advanced Knowledge Development Mansger, Experis Ciber AS

Terje Heen, Developer, NAV

Marcel Dekker Devos, Senior User Experience Consultant, Utviklings-og kompetanseetaten, Oslo kommune

Asbjørn Alexander Fellinghaug, Senior Consultant, Webstep

Geir Amsjø, Agile coach, Lean Venture

Hans Erik Ballangrud, Seniorkonsulent, IBM

Adrian Alexander Eriksen, Security Tester

Trond Hjorteland, Partner, Scienta

Ole Kristian Nystrøm, Advisor and Project manager, Bouvet Norge AS

Roy Allan Hansen, Security Trainer

Jim-Espen Gundersen, Senior Software Engineer, Sopra Steria AS

Anders Sundnes Løvlie, Associate professor, IT University of Copenhagen

Vetle Økland, Security Consultant, Nagarro

Sveinung Dalatun, Senior Consultant, Miles AS

Oleksandr Ivanov, Software engineer, Schibsted

Johan Reitan, App developer

Merete Munch Lange, Senior Consultant

Hilde Husevåg, Senior Consultant, Miles Oslo AS

Amund Bogetvedt, Developer

Mats Ekran, Automation Lead, LB Forsikring

David A. Sjøen, Systemutvikler og daglig leder, Pilgrim Softworks AS

Magne Davidsen, Leder for Teknologi, Blank

Ole Christer Selvig, Teknolog, Blank AS

Kjersti Berg, Architect, Frende Forsikring

Svein Elgstøen Senior Consultant (Tech Lead), CGI

Lars Tobias Skjong-Børsting, Chief Consultant, Skylars AS

Steffen Hageland, Seniorutvikler, Bekk

Lars Ellingsen, Co-founder, Kantega

Nils Ree, Senior developer, Solv AS

Lars Skjelbek, Teknolog, Blank AS

Helen Stortiset, Project manager

Ken Ove Andersen, Senior developer, JProfessionals

Thomas Gramstad, Chair Electronic Frontier Norway, Deputy Leader Norwegian Unix User Group, board member ISOC Norway

Håvard Anda Estensen, Platform Engineer

Alf Hansen, Vice Chair, ISOC Norway

Carl Fredrik Hersoug, Systemutvikler, Kantega AS

Tom Grydeland, Research Scientist

Pär Wiger, Knowledge Lubricator, Miles

Henrik Grindal Bakken, Software developer, Cisco Systems Norway

Tim Jagenberg, PhD, Senior Consultant, Webstep AS

Dag Erik Løvgren, Konsulent, Miles Bergen AS

Steinar Dragsnes, Senior Consultant, Miles AS

Vegard Stuen, Developer, Kantega AS

Leif John Korshavn, Senior Consultant, Zenior AS

Håvard Raddum, Chief Research Scientist

Geir Kristian Ronland, Teknolog og samfunnsviter

Grunde Løvoll, Data Scientist, Basefarm

Sindre Moen, App Developer, Vipps

Asgeir S. Nilsen, Senior Consultant, Miles Oslo AS

Martijn Stam, Cryptology Chief Research Scientist

Eivind Arvesen, Konsulent, Bouvet

Mario Ek Aparicio, Product manager, Vipps

Helger Lipmaa, Chief Research Scientist in Cryptography, Simula UiB

Robin Garen Aaberg, Tech lead, Knowit

Harald Sævareid, Seniorboliger designer, Kabra AS

Jan Wegger, Software developer, Cisco Systems Norway

Joacim Torkelsen, Network & Security consultant, ATEA

Marianne Gunderson, PhD Candidate in Digital Culture, University of Oslo

Mads Opheim, Developer, Computas

Kim Bjerkevoll, CTO, Elekt AS

Marius Bækken Glittum, Senior Software Engineer, Sopra Steria

Espen Holje, Founder and Chairman, Escio

Arild Jansen, Prof. emeritus, University of Oslo

Kari Asheim, Network Architect

Bjørn Mork, Software developer, Telenor

Joseph ‘Yossi’ Somer, General Manager, Joseph Somer Prod.

Espen Johnsen, Developer at Vipps

Nina Krogh, UiO

Erik Johannes Husom, Student, UiO

Martin Larsson, Seniorkonsulent, Kantega

Norvald Stol, Professor, Institutt for informasjonssikkerhet og kommunikasjonsteknologi, NTNU

Anders E. Bråten, Senior consultant, Kantega / PhD-candidate, NTNU

Kari Asheim, Network Architect, Cisco Systems Norway AS

Ina Aschim , Designer (UX/interaksjon), Kantega

Golnaz Jafari, Guest researcher, Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law (NRCCL), UiO

Kristina Nesset Kjerstad, Group Privacy Officer, Telenor Group

Håkon Nilsen, CEO, Apparat AS

Inge Hovd Gangås, Investment Director, SINTEF Venture

Geir Amdal, Principal Engineer, Nagarro AS

Peter Nitter, Senior Consulting Manager, Sopra Steria

Sigurd Øines, Informatics student, NTNU

Kristoffer Nyborg Gregertsen, Research manager, SINTEF Digital

Knut Erik Helgesen, Developer, Bouvet

Haldor Reinshorn Samset, Senior Software Developer, Signicat

Svein-Ivar Lillehaug, Høgskolelektor/forsker Helseinformatikk, Høgskolen på Vestlandet

Egil Risvoll Sørensen, Chief Solutions Architect, Altibox

Anette Roll Richardsen, CEO, Watchcom Security Group AS

Goran Stene Solomonovic, System architect / tech lead, Bouvet

Liam Svanåsbakken Crouch, Student, NTNU

Marius Mølnvik Øye, Information Security Student, NTNU

Geir K. Engdahl, CTO, Cognite

Åse Tharaldsen, System Manager

Johannes A. Daleng, Engineering Manager — Software

Anders Bjørnestad, Prinicipal Consultant, Webstep AS

Tobias Otnes Brattebø, Manager, Corporater

Jon Arve Risan, Owner KMI Consulting

Jon Hjelmervik, Research manager, SINTEF Digital

Tobias Lie Andersen, Developer

Signe Riemer-Sørensen, Researcher, SINTEF Digital

Vidar Østmo, Security Architect

Helge Olav Aarstein, Co-founder, Kantega AS

Torvald Lekvam, Site Reliability Engineer

Herman Schistad, Engineering Manager & Tech Lead, Kolonial.no

Heidi Dahl, Senior Research Scientist, SINTEF Digital

Saqib Riaz, Head of Integration, Sopra Steria

Morten Udnæs, Chief Architect, Conexus

Ole Martin Grønnestad, Senior System Consultant, iQubeS AS

Atle Geitung, Assosiate Professor, Computer Science, HVL

Harald Kuhr, Konsulent, Bouvet

Eirik Iversen, Senior Consultant, Webstep

Tore I. Christoffersen, Consultant, Bouvet

David Cameron, Coordinator, SIRIUS Centre, University of Oslo

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