Evolution of design thinking
“Design thinking” apply process of thinking . In order to resolve problem (Since 1980 until now). Before that we have to understand that the evolution pathway is non linear. (We can’t identify what happened first or behind). However, the way of thinking and the utilise of it start by group of people and in couple of industry.
In order to make an easier to understand. I want to identified “Tools” or “ The way of thinking” for design thinking.
At the first start, design thinking has adopted and use in “Urban Planning”. After that it has spread out to others industry. It start to called by “Participatory Design” . However, if we link back to the origin of this concept it can step back to Plato era. Because co-design decision (among people). It the roots of democracy that we familiar in nowadays.
Plato always ask the comments from his people.
Put fast-forward from Plato Era to 1960 when the design world start to open for new principal and new theory (The roots of design thinking). At first start participatory design was introduced to research industry (At that time it called “Scandinavian approach). The principal behind their research and design open and involve “everyone who related” to be involved as part of product development ( Prototyping). However, at the end of 60s when the technology start become advancement. Participatory design has evolved and developed to be “systems design”. Previously it’s the only process for engineers. At the end of 1980s participatory design has combine the old principal and become new science called “Interaction design” It has included all the science process involved for example, usability testing, mock-ups, prototyping and role playing.
The timeline of Participatory Design
The weekness of participatory design
However, the weakness of participatory design is eventually it’s not emphasis on “User Experience” as much. It’s only included “Usability” (The ability to use) and abandon all “Emotion and feeling”
The industrial design start to think about the new way of thinking and doing for example, co-design or collaboration design. The aim goal is to enhance “End user” who cannot involved to “co-design” as much as possible.
User- Centered Design
The person who is the most influence “User” to evolution of design is the guys who name “ Donald Norman”. He has change the principal of “Participatory Design” and give it’s a new name called “ User-Centered Design”. Under this concept Norman has reduce role of “Usability” (in process of user testing” and emphasis more on “User’s need & User’s interest)
Donald Norman start to introduce participatory design and system design to be more humanised) by to shows all the details and can be able to shows the errors and introduce the way to resolve it by themselves.
The main different between participatory design and user centered design is user-centered design is to emphasis the evolution of design development which mean “user experience” (Which acquire from the real users satisfaction) become more important rather than “user testing” ( Emphasis only on observe effectiveness of the end users)
The different between participatory design and user-centered design
Service design is combination of participatory design and user-centered design together. It’s combine the concept of product , environment ,experience and interaction together.
Lucy Kimbell and the academia in design has introduce “the new concept” for business development. From the idea that “ we have introduce one product and testing with the the rat, and observed the group of rat to use it and that it….finish” To the new way of concept that “We have to be aware for people to use or interact with our product and service” for example, do they use as the same way that we expect. Do they happy with the way they use it or not. What are the experience they have at the first start until end”
It has change the perspective of design thinking to be more than just user experience ,but it to be more the understanding how to use it, and the interaction.( “in term of users”) Since the product was introduced until the end.
Under concept of service design, we will not see product and service are different anymore. Everything include to be “service system” Service design include perception of “user” that include all involve stakeholder in the service not only for the user.
Service design has apply “Holistic Mindset” from Ezio Manzini (Service marketing and meta design) to be the heart of it. Beside that tools and process of working has include from ethology and marketing)
Human — Centered Design
The same as what the root of human-centered design
As the same the root of human centered design start from technology industry and design system (human centered interaction) until 1990s. The core thinking shift from technology to be more “human”
William B.Rouse Director of Tennenbaum institute (Georgia Institute of Technology) It has limit human centered design “It enhance human efficient and accept what is important for the users” Route emphasis that human centered design has potential to solve social big problem.
From 2000 human centered designed has changed from method to mindset and introduce human in the process of design and solve the problem. The most important is the mindset of understanding that have everyone involved in the department.
The conclusion since the first stat until the end.