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Decentralized governance and oracles are necessary in order to enable a wide variety of public blockchain use cases. However, these systems are only possible with well-designed on-chain voting systems and in practice, such systems are typically difficult to implement effectively.

This article will explore practical ideas that protocol designers can use to improve the effectiveness of their token-weighted voting schemes in different contexts. Since every situation is different, I encourage you to modify the strategies here and scale them to your needs. These are certainly not one size fits all!

Note that I will not be discussing or comparing base-layer…

In learning about proof-of-stake and its history, I constantly came upon the history revision attack, a type of “long-range attack”, described as one of proof-of-stake’s main flaws and security issues. Those against proof-of-stake would constantly use it in arguments on forums as reasons why proof-of-stake is flawed and proponents would shrug it off as something that just isn’t possible.

Unfortunately, none of these claims were ever substantiated with any formal evidence or logical reasoning so I went on a quest to figure it out for myself. What follows is my findings during the investigation. It is slightly technical and will…

Julian Wilson

Co-founder @ SportX (

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