But that’s not how competition actually works in telecommunications — and certainly not how it has worked out in America. As I’ve been saying for years, the phone companies (AT&T and Verizon) have backed off from from wired competition and become mostly wireless companies providing a complementary service, while the cable operators (Comcast and Time Warner Cable, chiefly) have decisively won the market for high-speed wired Internet access — becoming mostly monopoly providers in their footprints. Where consolidation is possible, competition is impossible.
You Didn’t Notice It, But Google Fiber Just Began the Golden Age of High Speed Internet Access
Susan Crawford
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You forget that large carriers have legacy infrastructure and are facilities based…that is: investment in plant is amortized as a cost to maintain the network. In this instance backhaul come into play because that cellular call you make is not end-to-end wireless. Most of that call is backhaul end through that legacy infrastructure that AT&T has had in place well before cellphones were commercially viable. The emergent network design is IMS. END TO END IP. The the all IP Multimedium Subsystem is mode agnostic.

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