…ulation versus the sample/batch variance is that σ is normalized by *m* and *s* is normalized by (m-1). Conceptually, the reason why we use (m-1) is that you’re also estimating the mean (in the form of x bar) to be centered, you’ll have to expect that the spread of your points (i.e., variance) will be a bit larger. In this case, it’s going to be precisely m/(m-1) larger. So, when we assign