Image Source: https://www.gisreportsonline.com/media/__sized__/region_images/east-asia-crop-c0-5__0-5-1220x685-70.jpg

In my studies of various East Asian countries, I have identified five characteristics shared by all late industrializers. These are characteristics that are often not witnessed in countries which have been unsuccessful at emulating the Japanese developmental state model.

(1) long-term political stability, often in the guise of a dominant political party in the case of Japan or outright dictatorship or authoritarian rule as witnessed in Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore;

(2) a global environment that is receptive to the export-led model of development, which for Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan was the Cold War, and for China it was…

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In terms of which type of weapons of mass destruction is more dangerous to global security, I would say that by orders of magnitude, the most dangerous ‘weapons of mass destruction’ is nuclear weapons, followed by chemical weapons and the least dangerous would be biological weapons.

Since ‘danger’ is primarily assessed through the number of casualties or the weapon’s projected capacity to inflict mass casualties, nuclear weapons are doubtless the most lethal and the most destructive, physically, politically, socially, environmentally, etc. It is the release of the power of the star after all. Nuclear weapons are, in practice, classified as…

The debate between limits-to-growth discourse and the promethean discourse has multiple facets. To identify them, one has to first consider their definitions. Second, one has to learn what things they emphasize and what things they leave off, and this could be revealed by learning whether they use empirical data, historical facts, or subscribe to a certain philosophical view. Third, one has to consider the “acceptability” of their arguments in the present world. To what extent are people willing to sacrifice for the “common” good? To what extent are societies willing to accept or deny the existence of ecological limits? …

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If this question is framed around the realist perspective of state-centric security, then the security of the state, its survival in an anarchic environment, will always be paramount to the security of its citizens. Westphalian sovereignty dictates that the security of the state is paramount to the security of the inhabitants within the state. Thus, the state may be secured (externally), yet its security may not always translate to the security of its citizens for reasons which depends on a variety of reasons, among of which could include the political situation and the ethnic tensions within the state.

Human security…

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The difference between ‘international’ and ‘global’ security rests on the way these two words are defined. The online version of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines international as “involving two or more countries: occurring between countries,” while it defines global as “involving the entire world”. Even though both of these are delineated by their scope, the former being narrower than the latter, I think that it is more productive to treat them as overlapping in their scope. One cannot speak of international security without invoking its relationship to global security and vice versa.

For global security, we can use various examples relating…

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Considering the various outcomes of the Arab Spring, with Tunisia being the only one which has succeeded, Libya and Syria in a civil war, Egypt relapsing to military rule, etc., I think it is fair to say that the Arab Spring has largely failed. One could perhaps see some degree of success in that the Arab Spring has led to the successful ouster of dictators (with the exception of Syria and the Persian Gulf states). Still, only Tunisia has actually survived the post-dictatorship transition. Even Egypt, which could have been the second successful country, has ruined its post-dictatorship transition. Libya…

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Understanding China’s post-1980s economic development is very important since it provides the best example of the convergence between neoliberalism and the developmental state model. The former emphasizes global integration and development based on market forces, while the latter emphasizes strategic planning and the effective relationship between bureaucrats and business. Mark Beeson’s article entitled “Developmental States in East Asia: A Comparison of the Japanese and Chinese Experiences” has summarized many of the geopolitical advantages that Japan has had during its heyday in the latter half of the 20th century, as well as China’s geostrategic advantages vis-à-vis the seemingly floundering Washington Consensus…

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The whole discussion on nuclear weapons has always been dominated by its capacity to inflict fear on people. It is no wonder, therefore, that some states think that it is in their national interest to acquire one. Currently, only Israel has nuclear weapons in the Middle East. With such a large power imbalance, it is only natural that its neighbours would feel that they should also have the right to acquire one. Iran, for instance, has been at the centre of the current international discussion regarding whether or not it should have a nuclear weapon. However, the whole debate surrounding…

Book Cover of the ‘Fair Future’ (Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwic9NG228LkAhW1FTQIHbs_CbYQjRx6BAgBEAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.zedbooks.net%2Fshop%2Fbook%2Ffair-future%2F&psig=AOvVaw2etTnerrp70Qo89edr2wwY&ust=1568083240679568)

To access the original material for this analysis, please refer to the following link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B34Md52u-a1Nc2l3WG5qTFJMN1E/view?usp=sharing

Wolfgang Sachs and Tilman Santarius have written a lengthy article on their views on what should be done to achieve greater “global resource justice.” In their article entitled “Fair Wealth,” the authors introduce a number of interesting proposals on how to restructure the local, national and global governance in such a way that justice could be achieved. …

Source: http://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/photos/780x439/2019/apr-2/EAP-Update-April-2019-cover.jpg

Recent history has shown that, aside from labour supply and low labour cost, a country must also have social and political stability for a reasonable period of time (sometimes lasting decades) in order for foreign investors to flock into the country. This was shown in Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea: the four Asian Economic Tigers in the late twentieth century. These countries, including British Hong Kong, had authoritarian (non-democratic) governments. Later into their development stages, however, these countries slowly transitioned to a more pluralist democratic system where periodic elections allow for political parties to vie for the leadership…

Kenneth Andres

I have a B.A. in Political Science from the University of Alberta. I am also a Junior Architectural Technologist.

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