RabbitMQ delay retry/schedule with Dead Letter Exchange

Kien Nguyen
Nov 3, 2015 · 2 min read

Java source code


Sometimes you don’t want messages in the queue to be read immediately. For example, you have a message that can’t be proceed right now but you want to requeue it and try again in 5 minutes. Unfortunately, RabbitMQ doesn’t come with native support for delayed or scheduled messages. Fortunately, RabbitMQ 2.8.0 introduced Dead Letter Exchanges (DLX), which allows us to simulate message scheduling.

Dead what?

When you create a queue (A) bound to an exchange (X), you can also specify an exchange (DLX) to redirect expired and rejected messages to. This is the dead letter exchange. Then you have another queue (B) bound to this dead letter exchange (DLX) to consume messages as they drop off the original queue (A).

In practice, if we wanted to enable retry on failure every 5 minutes, the flow would look like this:

  1. Create WorkQueue bound to WorkExchange
  2. Create RetryQueue bound to RetryExchange
  • Set x-dead-letter-exchange to WorkExchange
  • Set x-message-ttl to 300000 ms (5 minutes)
  1. Publish message to WorkQueue
  2. Client reads message from WorkQueue and attempts to process it
  3. Process fails and client publishes to RetryQueue
  4. Messages sits in RetryQueue for 5 minutes
  5. When message expires, it is requeued to WorkQueue for another attempt at processing
  6. Repeat steps 4–7

Here’s how you do it in C#:

Create the WorkQueue

// using RabbitMQ.Client;private const string WORK_QUEUE = "WorkQueue";
private const string WORK_EXCHANGE = "WorkExchange"; // dead letter exchange
ConnectionFactory factory = new ConnectionFactory();
factory.HostName = "localhost";

IConnection connection = factory.CreateConnection();
IModel channel = connection.CreateModel();

channel.ExchangeDeclare(WORK_EXCHANGE, "direct");
channel.QueueDeclare(WORK_QUEUE, true, false, false, null);
channel.QueueBind(WORK_QUEUE, WORK_EXCHANGE, string.empty, null);

Create the RetryQueue

private const string RETRY_EXCHANGE = "RetryExchange";
private const string RETRY_QUEUE = "RetryQueue";
private const int RETRY_DELAY = 300000; // in ms
// Messages will drop off RetryQueue into WorkExchange for reprocessing
// All messages in queue will expire at same rate
var queueArgs = new Dictionary<string, object> {
{ "x-dead-letter-exchange", WORK_EXCHANGE },
{ "x-message-ttl", RETRY_DELAY }
channel.ExchangeDeclare(RETRY_EXCHANGE, "direct");
channel.QueueDeclare(RETRY_QUEUE, true, false, false, queueArgs);
channel.QueueBind(RETRY_QUEUE, RETRY_EXCHANGE, string.empty, null);

Read from WorkQueue

QueueingBasicConsumer consumer = new QueueingBasicConsumer(channel);
channel.BasicConsume(WORK_QUEUE, true, consumer);
while (true) {
BasicDeliverEventArgs e = (BasicDeliverEventArgs) consumer.Queue.Dequeue();
var message = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.Body);
if (!DoSomething(message)) {

Publish to RetryQueue on failure

var data = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message)
channel.BasicPublish(RETRY_EXCHANGE, string.empty, null, data);

The code above will keep retrying indefinitely. It’s a good idea to check against some sort of MAX_RETRY constant. If your messages are JSON strings, it’s easy to encode the retry count in the message itself.


There are some things worth mentioning:

Several different ways to make the message drop into the DLX

  • In a RetryQueue consumer, reject the message and set requeue = false
  • Set per-queue message TTL when declaring a queue
  • Set per-message TTL when publishing a message

If using per-message TTL, the expired message won’t be sent to the DLX until it reaches the front of the queue. See rabbitmq.com/ttl.html for more information


Yoeun Pen


    Kien Nguyen

    Written by

    Co-founder @Terrabook

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