Top Ten Trance Channels of All Time

MJ Kinkade
21 min readNov 3, 2022

The average person doesn't know what a Trance Channel is, unless you are interested and focus very deeply on metaphysical and spiritual communication, in essence….a very advanced form of communication, you will come across Trance Channeling.

In a nutshell, Trance Channeling is a psychic phenomenon, considered an advanced technology in which the human body is used as an instrument to allow for another spirit form personality essence (s) to speak and use the physical host body to relay messages and information to the group/public. These beings that speak are usually referred to as Spirit Guides, Angels and Aliens and have been documented since the beginning of time.

Knowledge of such channeling phenomena has been documented throughout history and many channels themselves and their counterparts and has been known as also writers, speakers, inventors, poets, musicians, and philosophers since the beginning of time. Many have thought the Bible has been channeled through channelers who then wrote it down, saying it is, ‘The word of God’ or ‘God's word’.

Channeling has happened to many ordinary people when they can't explain where an extraordinary sense, information, or delivery of a specialized skill or activity even had them spellbound as if they were out of their body and something else took over…in pleasurable situations and even life-or-death situations. Trance Channeling falls into this category, but it is very different. Trance Channeling is an agreement, prior by the host and the one (s) that will be speaking thru the person. Some can speak in other languages but it is uncommon because the Highly Ascended Spirit can only use the linguistic abilities of the host channel.

One of the aims of this article is to provide a case study and critical analysis of a specific type of spiritual communication called Trance Channeling.

There are different types of Trance Channels. There are Trance Channels that only channel one entity or higher intelligence, like Bashar through Darryl Anka for example. Then there are multi-speaker-trance channels like Riz Mirza who can channel over 100 different higher intelligent beings, not all at once of course and in shamanic ceremonies. Some channelers will only speak to large groups and give general messages and others will give personal and very specific messages to individuals. Some channel publically, some only privately. Jane Roberts is the only known channel to channel 15 books in an era when channeling was relatively unknown.

some of the books by channel Jane Roberts.

There are Master Channels that are not Full Trance Channels.

Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (February 16, 1802 — January 16, 1866) was an American clockmaker, mentalist and mesmerist. His work is widely recognized as foundational to the New Thought spiritual movement, but it is unclear if he was a full trance channel. Helen Schucman Channeled a Course in Miracles. The spirit that channeled a “new gospel” to Mrs. Schucman said to be Jesus Christ. But was only through the written word. A Course in Miracles was “scribed” by Dr. Schucman, interestingly enough she was an atheist.

Most very advanced Trance Channels do not talk in detail about other alien species in their messages, and many topics including the Galactic federation, etc unless asked because the messages are usually hyper-focused on the evolution of human-kind and they do not discuss these types of sensationalistic conversations unless the one asking the questions needs this information for their own betterment. Mainly, they keep to general messages in a very detailed way to help the individual grow spiritually.

Many claim to be full trance channels, but there are very specific criteria to really ascertain what type or level of channeling the Trance Channel is really doing. All true Master Channels have noticed that Highly Evolved entities or spirit personalities refer to themselves as ‘we’ because of the Universal Consciousness and the Law of One, meaning the belief that All is created as One. In my fascination, research, and exposure to years of trance channeling and any and all types of metaphysical and psychic phenomena I have compiled my research to explain the types of trance channeling and the expertise level. In order to do so, you have to understand what it is and what it is not and to do that, you have to understand how to weed out the amateurs, or frauds.

The Tell-Tale signs of Master Trance channels vs Frauds.

Master Trance Channels

  • They have a consistent tempo in their cadence of the particular spirit essence, and the messages have no breaks in their speaking, they have a rhythm that can sometimes put the listener in a trance. They have these messages accurately recorded every time they channel for days, years, and months exactly the same and documented. The messages are highly evolved, nonjudgemental, personal or creating any fear propaganda. They can answer any question, never have ‘accidental breaks’ or are ‘stumped’. There are Masters, which are the channels that create a career or lifetime of documented communication and are considered Full Trance Channels, which is rare. Currently, the only known Full Trance Channels speaking today are Esther Hicks, Darryl Anka, Jach Pursel and Riz Mirza. Full Trance Channels surrender their entire being and body and their body is fully utilized by this psychic phenomenon, they are no longer ‘themselves’ when channeling.
  • Out of this group, Riz Mirza is the only one who has a profession as a Full Trance Channel and is a working psychic medium and shaman in multiple facets as well and has reached a record number of hours being out of the body in front of groups of people for over 5 hours at a time giving personal messages to individuals.

The Frauds

I hate calling them frauds because in my research I have discovered these ‘channels’ mean well. They could be in the beginning stages of channeling and I hate to downplay their abilities, even if they are not very good, because trance channeling is not easy and many masters are simply born with the gift. But, others learn through a teacher but although not everyone can do it, for at least 100% of the time for long periods of time.

The tell-tale signs of a channel that is not real or clear:

  • Their personal opinion is clearly distinguished within the message.
  • They have many breaks, and their eyes blink and flicker a lot to gain composure. Unless this is a pattern.
  • There are inaccuracies in their message, and their physical appearance doesn't reflect the highly articulate and very difficult process of trance channeling. Which can be akin to becoming a professional athlete internally. It requires great stamina and focus, so the host is a very articulate being. In my research I have noticed when a channel starts to ‘let go’ of their appearance and health, their channeling suffers. It is a reverent act.
  • They say sloppy and disparaging things during or outside of channeling. They use words that express themselves like it is understood that their experience is not of the highest order of love and light, there is no reverence in speaking about it. They may say they are being inhabited or it is a poltergeist experience or they are reincarnated of any of the great previous masters or call themselves the hosts; deities, aliens, etc.

Trance Channels who have devoted their life to channeling messages to the world and people individually have created a profession of this ancient and futuristic art of metaphysical communication and have witnessed millions of lives being changed for the better as they are encouraging the evolution of love on the planet. They charge nominal to higher rates to witness or speak to the beings thru them and this is normal since it takes years to master this fine skill and they are considered the top of their profession. They usually have channeled books they co-authored with a transcriber.

How futuristic are the messages?

Many of the messages transcribed or recorded from these Master Trance Channels offer insights that can help humanity but seem out of reach or too futuristic for current society when the message is delivered. However, since Channeling has been documenting these messages for hundreds of years now, research is showing that science is catching up with these channeled ‘spiritual’ messages. Once scoffed at, now it is common knowledge, for instance how fasting can help cure the body of many ailments if done properly. When first heard by the public, they thought this was outrageous, as we know now it is a common practice and considered very advanced in healing the body.

Full access to the host body.

Some Channels have the ability to allow the being to inhabit the entire body and walk, drink water and move around the stage or a room in a very normal, fluid state while in a full ‘trance’ state. Esther Hicks and Riz Mirza have this ability.

Controversial Trance Channels channeling not the Highest Vibratory Beings

There are channels that fall into this great area, there are times when channels derail. In this case, JZ Knight-channeling Ramtha has these controversial stories and many opinionated messages that come from ‘Ramtha’ or herself which do not match the criteria of a Highly Ascended being who do not have opinions. ‘Channels’ like Geoffrey Hoppe, may have some good messages but the Master Trance Channelers do not have groups, or followers or ascribe special names to any of the people who follow their work. They consider it a public service for all.

In my experience with trance channels and being an active researcher and experiencer in the spiritual community, I have witnessed many nay-sayers and non-believers who take messages out of context and put their own spin on the messages given, making the master Trance Channel sound ridiculous. But, these are the few and the majority of people understand the messages given, and appreciate the healing advice or upliftment and new thinking that helps people find their own power as creators.

Religious people usually do not accept teaching or messages from psychic Channelers which I find interesting because they believe in what one could perceive as very wild concepts in their own religions. It comes down to one's own perspective, one's own inner dialogue of what resonates as truth and wisdom or not to them. I notice that people who are new to trance channeling, have the hardest time and immediately discount it unless they really pay close attention and go to many channeled gatherings and research it as I have and see it work in their own lives. But, some people understand how to listen to a channel right away and for some, it can take years.

Skeptics of psychic phenomenon.

Some people cannot grasp the concept and immediately turn down the possibility that this phenomenon can occur even though it has been recorded in history since the beginning of time. A random website I visited said, “The psychology of channeling, instead, channelers are only able to provide unimportant, unverifiable and ambiguous information about the great beyond.” as they were giving their opinion on the topic, the article was clear they did not have a grasp on what the phenomena actually is. And keep in mind, a phenomenon is just that, unexplainable. All one can do is define it the best one can based on their own experience, but many do not know how to properly speak about the topic.

Psychologists have been trying to label this ability since psychology was invented, but trance channeling has been around since ancient Egypt, India and Africa before psychology. Medicine men and women were the first known channelers documented by scribes and verbal passing down through Wisdom Keepers/teachers throughout history in every culture. Psychology wants to label and identify to create clear lines to encapsulate something that is unexplainable by our current technology so they find comfort and distance from a thing they do not understand by labeling it.

I am witnessing first hand, many psychologists have been modifying and trying the change their work to provide ‘alternative healing’, and shamanic work for their clients, because the demand is so high for more profound healing from their clients. Many have closed their doors and re-opened alternative healing centers and have told me their licenses may become revoked and psychology becomes extinct soon because the demand for more reasonable and coherent explanations for the evolution of human nature expands past what psychology can keep up with.

Many people have recounted having loved ones who have passed relay messages during Trance Channeling sessions like with Riz Mirza in the Circle of Light and they have been astounded by its accuracy with witnesses attending agreeing to these messages. Furthermore, the information received from channeling can be verified by many studies in science and older transcripts of channeling have been proven to come to light as fact in the scientific community decades after it was channeled.

A recent neuroscience experiment by a private doctor whom I discovered in my research had hooked up a biofeedback machine to a Full Master Trance Channel one time and said the areas lit up in the brain were not the same areas of people with multiple personality disorders or dissasociation. I love when science has no choice but to support the metaphysical abilities of psychic phenomena. He said that the brain actually was experiencing a state of deep relaxation and rest while the trance channeling was happening. Channelers have attested that channeling feels very restful while it is happening but requires a lot of energy and exertion to create a stable environment during.

Now, that you have a better sense of what a Master Full Trance channel is, I have compiled a list of the top ten Master Full Trance Channels of All Time, in no particular order.

See their achievements and bios after the list.

  1. Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877–January 3, 1945) Channeling his Higher Self
  2. Esther Hicks (March 5, 1948-present) Channeling Abraham
  3. Darryl Anka (Oct 12, 1951-present) Channeling Bashar
  4. Jane Roberts (May 8, 1929 — September 5, 1984) Channeling Seth
  5. Alex Murray (March 1944–June 2022) Channeling Amatonqua and Others
  6. Riz Mirza (Aug 20, 1969-present) Channeling Red Eagle and Others
  7. Barbara Marciniak (July 10 1948-present) Channeling Pleiadians
  8. Lee Carroll (Feb 15 1944-present) Channeling Kryon
  9. Jach Pursel (1947-present) Channeling Lazaris
  10. Helen Schucman (July 14, 1909-Feb 9, 1981) Channeling Jesus (not a full trance channel)

These bios are excerpts found across the web, and websites.

Edgar Cayce
  1. Edgar Cayce

Edgar Cayce was an American clairvoyant who claimed to channel his higher self while asleep in a trance-like state.[1] His words were recorded by his friend Al Layne, his wife, Gertrude Evans, and later by his secretary, Gladys Davis Turner. During the sessions, Cayce would answer questions on a variety of subjects like healing, reincarnation, dreams, the afterlife, past lives, nutrition, Atlantis and future events. Cayce, a devout Christian and Sunday school teacher, said his readings came from his subconscious mind exploring the dream realm where, according to him, all minds were timelessly connected. Cayce founded a non-profit organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment,[2] to record and facilitate the study of his channeling and to also run a hospital. Cayce is known as The Sleeping Prophet, based on the title of journalist Jess Stearn’s 1967 Cayce biography.

Some religious scholars and thinkers, such as author Michael York, consider Cayce to be the true founder and a principal source of many of the most characteristic beliefs of the New Age movement.

Esther Hicks channeling the group Abraham

2. Esther Hicks

Esther Hicks is an American inspirational speaker, channeler, and author. She has co-written nine books with her late husband Jerry Hicks, presented numerous workshops on the law of attraction with Abraham-Hicks Publications and appeared in the original version of the 2006 film The Secret.[1] The Hicks’ books, including the series The Law of Attraction, are — according to Esther Hicks — “translated from a group of non-physical entities called Abraham”. Hicks describes what she is doing as tapping into “infinite intelligence”. Emotions are a person’s guidance system that indicates how close or distant that person is to how their Source feels about a particular topic of focus. Life is meant to be fun and easy.

Louise Hay calls them “some of the best teachers on the planet today.” To Dr. Wayne Dyer they are “the great Masters of the Universe!”

A veritable who’s-who of authors, speakers and teachers continue to publicly acknowledge and praise the immense value of the wisdom that is pouring forth through Esther. Abraham has described themselves as “a group consciousness from the non-physical dimension” (which helps a lot!). They have also said, “We are that which you are. You are the leading edge of that which we are. We are that which is at the heart of all religions.”

Abraham has told us through Esther that whenever we feel moments of great love, exhilaration, pure joy, stoned-out bliss, even the energy of sexual orgasm when we feel that Energy Flow rushing through our bodies, that is the energy of Source, and that is who Abraham “is”.

Top 5 Best Abraham Hicks Books To Read

  • Ask and It Is Given
  • The Law of Attraction
  • Money and the Law of Attraction
  • The Vortex
  • The Astonishing Power of Emotions
Darryl Anka channeling Bashar

3. Darryl Anka

Anka describes Bashar as being from an alternate dimensional planet located 500 light-years away in the direction of the Orion constellation, called Essassani.[3][4][5] Anka presents “Bashar” in open and private sessions around the world, where Anka appears to be in an altered state of consciousness and open dialogue occurs with an attending audience.Bashar is a physical E.T, a friend from the future who has spoken for the past 37 years through channel Darryl Anka. He has brought through a wave of new information that clearly explains in detail how the universe works, and how each person creates the reality they experience. Over the years, thousands of individuals have had the opportunity to apply these principles, and see that they really work to change their lives and create the reality that they desire.

According to his website, he says, “Overwhelmingly the response we receive is “This works!” Some of the feedback our listeners have shared include:

• Enhanced creativity and abundance
• Mental and emotional clarity
• Improved health
• Enhanced love relationships
• Expanded psychic ability
• Increased self-love and self-acceptance
• Greater self-empowerment”

Why do these concepts work?

Bashar would be the first to say that it’s because this information is based on the laws of physics and is not just a nice New-Age philosophy. Perhaps this is a more advanced version of physics than you may have encountered in the past. But nevertheless, it is based on physics. Hence, when you apply these principles and techniques to your day-to-day life, you can see dramatic results both in what you experience and how you feel.

Anka’s best books:

Darryl Anka’s books

https://www.bashar.org/

Jane Roberts channeling Seth with husband Robert Butts transcribing.

4. Jane Roberts

Dorothy Jane Roberts was an American author, poet, psychic, and spirit medium, who channeled a personality who called himself “Seth.” Her publication of the Seth texts, known as the Seth Material, established her as one of the preeminent figures in the world of paranormal phenomena.

Seth’s effect upon New Age thinkers has been profound. The title jacket of “The Nature of Personal Reality, A Seth Book,” republished in 1994 (Amber-Allen/New World Library), contains testimonials from some of the most notable thinkers and writers within the movement. Marianne Williamson, Deepak Chopra, Shakti Gawain, Dan Millman, Louise Hay, Richard Bach, and others express the effect the Seth Material had upon their own awakening. In words similar to Williamson’s they state: “Seth was one of my first metaphysical teachers. He remains a constant source of knowledge and inspiration in my life.” Catherine L. Albanese, professor of religious history at the University of Chicago, stated that in the 1970s the Seth Material “launched an era of nationwide awareness” of the channeling trend. She believes it contributed to the “self-identity of an emergent New Age movement and also augment[ed] its ranks.”[57]

John P. Newport, in his study of the impact of New Age beliefs on contemporary culture, described the central focus of the Seth material as the idea that for each individual: “you create your own reality.” (Briefly summarized, our beliefs generate emotions that trigger our memories and organize our associations. Eventually, those beliefs become manifested in our physical lives and health.[58]) Newport wrote that this foundational concept of the New Age movement was first developed in the “Seth Material.”[59] Historian Robert C. Fuller, a professor of religious studies at Bradley University, wrote that Seth filled the role of guide for what Fuller called “unchurched American spirituality,” related to concepts of reincarnation, karma, free will, ancient metaphysical wisdom, and “Christ consciousness.”[60]

Seth is the internationally acclaimed spiritual teacher who spoke through the author Jane Roberts while she was in trance, and coined the phrase “You Create Your Own Reality.” Seth’s empowering message literally launched the New Age movement.

The books written by Seth have sold over seven million copies and have been translated into over eleven languages and all were transcribed and co-written with her husband, artist Robert Butts.

Seth’s clear presentation of the furthest reaches of human potential, the eternal validity of the soul, and the concept that we create our own reality according to our beliefs, has rippled out to affect the lives of people in every corner of the globe.

Seth’s voice clearly stands out as one of the major forces which led to the current New Age philosophical movement. There is so much material on Jane Roberts and Seth I couldn't document it all here.

https://www.sethlearningcenter.org/

Alex Murray

5. Alex Murray

Alex Murray was an internationally known clairvoyant, trance channel, lecturer and teacher. He had been consulted by many clients over the years around the world.

Alex’s work focused on channeling for groups, clairvoyant consultations and teaching various workshops.

During channeling, he would go into a trance state and allow highly evolved spiritual beings to speak through him as an instrument. People could then directly interact with them.

In his lectures and teaching practice, Alex covered a wide variety of subjects including:

  • Channeling
  • Psychic development
  • Telepathy
  • Divination
  • Tarot
  • Psychometry
  • Prosperity
  • Relationships and Love
  • Healing Through Sound
  • Psychic Self-Defense
  • Changing Karma
  • Interpreting Dreams and Psychic Symbols

The Power of Ceremonies including the practice of White Magic, in which he shows how techniques of primitive forms of magic can be adapted to positive and useful uses such as healing. He has a very devoted following and has practiced out of his New York apartment for over 30 years.

https://alexmurray.net/

Shaman Psychic Medium Riz with sacred international retreats and the Circle of Light.

6. Riz Mirza

For over 15 years Shaman Riz Mirza has been channeling numerous spirit guides who have helped heal and uplift thousands of people in over 2000 live full-trance channeled gatherings called the Circle of Light with over 8,000 hrs of documented and recorded sessions to large groups weekly.

Riz is well known as one of the only top full trance channels of our generation that is known to channel publically and gives individual personal messages to the entire group. Also, he is the only one who has channeled over 100 different well-known spirit guides, all documented and recorded in front of a live audience consistently for over ten years. He has also channeled a record 5 hours straight in front of a packed studio, giving individual messages while in trance. He is also a skilled psychic medium delivering precise messages since he was in his twenties in New York City. A founder of a Malibu addiction center who attended one of the Circle of Light channeled gatherings told Riz’s wife Oriah Mirza after the event that, “never before since witnessing Jane Roberts channel in person that he saw anyone with the same profound gift as her.”

According to the website, Riz has been ‘Tested by many experts in the field, like students of Jane Roberts and many Spirit Medium Students and other Trance Channels. His accuracy and delivery are the most accurate and the most practical usable advice and the most advanced in the world regarding living and re-programming for a healthier more high-vibrational life.’

A musician and former heavy metal singer, Riz considers himself the Ozzy Osbourne of the psychic world.

He has channeled and currently channels all recorded:

Red Eagle

Elijah

Isaiah

Emmanuel

Thomas Jefferson

Serapis Bay

Eleazar

Hippocrates

Elohim

Merlin

Gabriel

Sebastian Bach

Copernicus

Phineas Quimby

Philo

Cerrienunos

Helios

Agamemnon

Edgar Allen Poe

Kepler

Oden

Demetrius

Jeremiah

Caravaggio

Arch Angel Gabriel

Thomas Edison

King Arthur

Charlie Chaplin

The Echelon

Charles Dickens

Arch Angel Raphael

Titus

Beethoven

Queen Guinevere & King Arthur

Princess Diana

Helen Keller

Martha Washington

King Alfred….and more.

He takes groups worldwide on sacred retreats and channels psychic messages to people in ancient sites. He has co-written several books with his wife Oriah Mirza. Ram Dass has witnessed Riz channel in his home and has said, “he knew things only I knew about myself, a true gentle soul.”

Barbara Marciniak

7. Barbara Marciniak

Barbara Marciniak is an internationally acclaimed trance channel, inspirational speaker, and best-selling author of Bringers of the Dawn, Earth, Family of Light, and Path of Empowerment, which collectively has been translated into more than twenty languages and has sold over five hundred thousand U.S. copies.

She has a BA in social science and is the publisher and editor of the quarterly newsletter The Pleiadian Times. Her extensive worldwide travels, astrological studies, and a lifetime of alternative free thinking augment her personal understanding of the material she channels.

“Everything changes when you start to emit your own frequency rather than absorbing the frequencies around you, when you start imprinting your intent on the universe rather than receiving an imprint from existence.”
Barbara Marciniak

https://www.pleiadians.com/

Lee Carroll channeling Kryon

8. Lee Carroll

Lee Carroll is an American channeller, speaker, and author. Carroll has authored thirteen books on channellings from an entity he calls “Kryon”, and has co-authored three books on what he terms indigo children, a new generation of children he claims represents an evolution in human consciousness.

In 1995, Lee was asked to present Kryon at the United Nations (U.N.) in New York City before a U.N. — chartered group known as the Society for Enlightenment and Transformation (S.E.A.T.). The meeting was so well accepted that they were invited back six more times, in 1996, 1998, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009. These meetings are held upstairs in the working areas of the U.N. building, not far from the General Assembly. Only delegates to the U.N. and guests of the society may attend.

Lee is the now the author of fourteen Kryon books, and co-author of three Indigo Children books. These Indigo books introduced the world to the term “Indigo Children” in 2000, spawning many follow-up books by various authors, a movie, a documentary, and lots of interest worldwide regarding our changing kids! The Indigo books have sold almost half a million copies worldwide in twenty-four languages.

In 2012, during a Kryon meeting to McCaysville, Georgia, at Delphi Metaphysical University, Lee was surprised with an honorary doctorate degree of Science, Transpersonal Psychology, & Metaphysics! The recognition of Lee by the University was: “For his extraordinary contributions of love, wisdom, and spiritual understanding.”

9. Jach Pursel

Since 1974, Lazaris has channeled through Jach Pursel, his only channel, offering his friendship and love and generating a remarkable body of tools, techniques, processes, and pathways for our Spiritual Journey.

Lazaris has touched thousands of us in his extraordinary workshops and tens of thousands more with his books, video recordings, and audio recordings that many have referred to as the “finest tools of metaphysics and spirituality available.”

One of the founders of Concept: Synergy, is the sole channel for Lazaris. Beyond that specific role, his presence and magic permeate every aspect of the company, from his compelling articles, rich with mystical wisdom, to the sacred talismans he and Lazaris create. Jach enjoys traveling the world and sharing his adventures and observations through beautifully poignant writings, which you can read on our blog.

10. Helen Schucman

Helen Schucman, Ph.D., was a clinical and research psychologist, who held the tenured position of Associate Professor of Medical Psychology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. A Course in Miracles was “scribed” by Dr. Schucman between 1965 and 1972 through a process of inner dictation. She experienced the process as one of a distinct and clear dictation from an inner voice, which earlier had identified itself to her as Jesus. Dr. Schucman’s scribing of A Course in Miracles began with these words: “This is a course in miracles, please take notes.”

The text of the book “A Course in Miracles” is the product of seven years of trance spirit channeling of a Mrs. Helen Schucman. The spirit that channeled a “new gospel” to Mrs. Schucman claimed to be Jesus Christ. The “spirit” made contact with her to correct errors in Sacred Scripture, and the teachings of the Church. The “spirit” that channeled through Mrs. Schucman wrote that Sacred Scripture was in error in teaching us that sin separates us from God, and that Jesus Christ did not die on the cross for our sins. The book “A Course in Miracles” contains a Text (the dictation of Mrs. Schucman), a Student Workbook, and an instructor's Manual (1).

https://acim.org/

More on Phinneas Quimby

Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, was a patient of Quimby’s, who was a healer steeped in Protestant theology and science.[14] Later, claims were made that she was at least partially inspired by Quimby in her theology. However, both Quimby’s son[15] and Christian Scientists[16] have pointed out major differences between Quimbyism and Christian Science. Biographer Gillian Gill[17] and others[18] agreed, pointing out that because of its theism, Christian Science differs considerably from the teachings of Quimby, who did not base his work in religion.

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