《教室裡的間諜》—美國媒體對國民黨職業學生的報導

今年是陳文成命案發生第37週年。這個在台灣白色恐怖的大案之所以著名,是因為當時在美國就受到媒體,乃至國會議員的關注。在此之前,美國許多媒體已經報導過國民黨派職業學生監視海外台灣學生的問題。而著名的《新聞週刊》(Newsweek)則在1982年5月17日以《教室裡的間諜》(Spies in the Classroom)為題,報導了國民黨在美國派駐職業學生,監視留學生的活動。以下是全文翻譯:

陳文成與妻子陳素貞及兒子陳翰傑(Photo: 自由時報)

教室裡的間諜

每年有數以千計的台灣學生在美國大學註冊入學 — 並且經常發現他們的政府也來了。台灣執政黨國民黨派出的學生探員潛伏在全美國的校園之中,並記錄下疑似異議份子的名字。利比亞、菲律賓、以及南韓也會監視這裡的學生,但是根據華盛頓大學中國研究教授史培德(Stanley Spector)指出:「台灣政府似乎是投入最多經費在監視活動中的」。這個問題在去年夏天迅速成為聚光燈焦點。當時一位卡內基美隆大學的教授陳文成返鄉探親,卻被發現陳屍在國立台灣大學校園。雖然官方說法指出,陳文成之死是意外或是自殺,仍有許多人相信他是被國民黨殺害的。因為在美國,有(國民黨)間諜會報告疑似反政府活動。

根據本地的台灣學生所述,國民黨政府有多達五個政府機關(包括相當於美國國家安全局、聯邦調查局及國防部的機關)會在美國收集情資。他們是透過台灣的北美事務協調委員會被鬆散地組織起來。學生說,國民黨經常從軍校中招募間諜。大部份是忠誠度高的學生兼差當間諜;有些則是全職探員假扮的學生。台灣的國民黨官員據說會觀察哪些美國學校需要有更多的線民,哪些學生則需要嚴加看管。根據美國的消息來源,有些線民每個月有600元的薪水,有些則會按每份報告收50或100元不等。根據一份卡內基美隆大學流出來的樣本報告,線民會被要求提供「敵我情勢分析」以及各種「敵人」的資訊。每份報告可填入五個名字。

當國民黨得到一份學生的負面報告,它通常會提出警告。若是再犯,警察就會拜訪學生的家庭。最後,「異議份子」的護照會被收走,甚至被監禁。前明尼蘇達大學學生葉島蕾就是因為在美國看了中國電影,而在1981年1月被判刑14年。

陌生人:因為沒有人確定誰是間諜,和同學見面會有很大的壓力。在耶魯大學,據說在45名台灣學生中就有3名間諜。學生間彼此交談都要格外小心。去年秋天,一位就讀常春藤學校的台灣學生轉學到另一所學校一個學期的時間。沒多久,就有一位從未謀面的同胞來拜訪他。見面時,這位學生發現這位陌生人的筆記本上有好幾位著名的間諜的名字。當這位學生在今年春天回到原本的學校時,他發現那位陌生人也在學校裡。許多學生說,他們會用很多巧妙的方式來看出誰可能是間諜。那些能夠經常回家的人,或是會在十月重要政治節日回家的人,就可能是間諜。

台灣政府派駐在美國的官員否認有任何間諜活動。但根據國會消息來源,美國司法部與聯邦調查局在去年眾議院亞太小組針對陳文成之死的聽證會中,就承認了這點。在與參議院協商後,眾議院軟化措詞並通過立法,要對派遣間諜到美國校園的國家禁止軍售。同時,美國政府及大學不經意間也補助了線民。有些學生是兩邊拿錢,包括他們從台灣得來的間諜費用。

紐約:Dennis A. Williams與Penelope Wang/波士頓:Mac Margolis報導


報導原文如下:


Spies in the Classroom

Thousands of students from Taiwan enroll in American colleges and universities each year — and often find that their government comes with them. Student-agents of Taiwan’s ruling Kuomintang Party (KMT) haunt campuses all across the United States, taking names of suspected dissidents. The Libyans, Filipinos and South Koreans also spy on students here, but as Stanley Spector, a professor of Chinese studies at Washington University, says, “The Taiwanese seem to put the most money into it.” The problem was spotlighted most dramatically last summer when Chen Wen-chen, a professor at Carnegie-Mellon University, went home to visit his parents and then was found dead on the campus of National Taiwan University. Although Chen’s death was officially said to be an accident or suicide, many believe he was killed by the KMT because of alleged anti-government activities reported by spies in the United States.

According to Taiwan students here, as many as five branches of the KMT government (including the equivalents of the U.S. National Security Agency, FBI and Defense Department) gather intelligence in the United States. They are loosely organized through Taiwan’s Coordination Council for North American Affairs. Students say the KMT often recruits its spies out of military academies. Most are bona fide students who moonlight as spies; a few are full-time agents posing as students. KMT officials in Taipei reportedly keep tabs on which U.S. schools need more informants and which students need to be watched. According to sources in the United States, some informants receive a monthly salary of $600; others get $50 or $100 for each report they submit. In a sample report from Carnegie-Mellon, informants were asked to provide an “analysis of the situation between us and the enemies,” as well as information regarding various “enemies,” with space allotted for five names.

When the KMT gets a negative report about a student, it usually issues a warning. Further transgressions can prompt a visit by security police to the student’s family; ultimately, “dissidents” may have their passports revoked and be imprisoned. Rita Yeh, a former University of Minnesota students, was sentenced to a fourteen-year prison term in January 1981, in part because she attended Chinese movies in the United States.

Strangers: Because no one is certain who the spies are, meeting a colleague is a strain for Taiwanese students. At Yale University, where there are reported to be at least three spies among the 45 Taiwanese, students are careful about what they say in front of each other. Last fall one Taiwanese student at an Ivy League school transferred to another college for a semester, and soon received a visit from a countryman he had never met. During the visit, he discovered the names of reputed spies in the stranger’s notebook. When the student returned to his old campus this spring, he saw the stranger there, too. Students say there are also more subtle ways of identifying probable spies. Anyone who can afford frequent trips home, or who returns during key political holidays in October, is suspect.

Taiwan Government officials in the United States deny that any spying goes on. According to Congressional sources, however, the U.S. Justice Department and the FBI acknowledged the problem during House Asian and Pacific Affairs subcommittee hearings last year on Chen’s death. The House passed legislation, softened in conference with the Senate, that would have banned arms sale to countries that have spies on American campuses. Meanwhile, the U.S. Government and the universities are inadvertently subsidizing informers: some students get grants from both, along with their spy allowance from Taiwan.

DENNIS A. WILLIAMS with PENELOPE WANG in New YORK and MAC MARGOLIS in Boston

Newsweek雜誌在1982年5月17日的雜誌封面(Photo: backissues.com)

Yang, Kuang-shun (楊光舜)

Written by

政治。國際關係。美國國會。

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