A Whitepaper details specifically how you propose your technology will actually work.
How to do an Initial Coin Offering (Part 1)
Collin Thompson

Exactly this — thanks for pointing this out. As I discussed in my recent article, page through the “white papers” of many ICOs and they look like amateur marketing pamphlets with broad strokes and vague promises. These poorly-written white papers are a huge red flag that the ICO is either poorly thought out or nothing more than a quick cash-grab.