Excerpts from Daniel Pink’s “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us”
“When money is used as an external reward for some activity, the subjects lose intrinsic interest for the activity…Rewards can deliver a short-term boost — just as a jolt of caffeine can keep you cranking for a few more hours. But the effect wears off — and, worse, can reduce a person’s longer-term motivation to continue the project.”
“The first were ‘hygiene factors — extrinsic rewards such as pay, working conditions, and job security. Their absence created dissatisfaction, but their presence didn’t lead to job satisfaction. The second were ‘motivators’ — things like enjoyment of the work itself, genuine achievement, and personal growth.”
“If someone’s baseline rewards aren’t adequate or equitable, her focus will be on the unfairness of her situation and the anxiety of her circumstance. You’ll get neither the predictability of extrinsic motivation nor the weirdness of intrinsic motivation. You’ll get very little motivation at all. The best use of money as a motivator is to pay people enough to take the issue of money off the table.”
“…rewards can perform a weird sort of behavioral alchemy: they can transform an interesting task into a drudge. They can turn play into work. And by diminishing intrinsic motivation, they can send performance, creativity and even upstanding behavior toppling like dominoes.”
“Rewards are addictive in that once offered, a contingent reward makes an agent expect it whenever a similar task is faced., which in turn compels the principal to use rewards over and over again. And before long, the existing reward may no longer suffice. It will quickly feel less like a bonus and more like the status quo — which then forces the principal to offer larger rewards to achieve the same effect.”
“Rewards, we’ve seen, can limit the breadth of our thinking. But extrinsic motivators — especially tangible, ‘if-then’ ones — can also reduce the depth of our thinking. They can focus our sights on only what’s immediately before us rather than what’s off in the distance.”
“Carrots and Sticks: The Seven Deadly Flaws.
1. They can extinguish intrinsic motivation.
2. They can diminish performance.
3. They can crush creativity.
4. They can crowd out good behavior.
5. They can encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior.
6. They can become addictive.
7. They can foster short-term thinking.”
“Any extrinsic reward should be unexpected and offered only after the task is complete. Holding out a prize at the beginning of a project — and offering it as a contingency — will inevitably focus people’s attention on obtaining the reward rather than on attacking the problem. But introducing the subject of rewards after the job is done is less risky.”
“If tangible rewards are given unexpectedly to people after they have finished a task, the rewards are less likely to be experienced as the reason for doing the task and are thus less likely to be detrimental to intrinsic motivation.”
“Type I behavior emerges when people have autonomy over the four T’s: their task, their time, their technique, and their team.”