良好姿勢三個必要的元素Three Essential Elements of Good Posture
Todd Hargrove December 22, 2010
在前一篇文章中，我寫了幾個關於姿勢常見的誤解。在這篇文章，我會試著解釋一些經常被忽略但卻是良好姿勢必要的元素，並提供一些創新的方法來達到它。In a previous post I wrote about several common misconceptions about posture. In this post I’ll try to explain some essential functional elements of good posture that are often overlooked, and give some creative ways to work toward them.
良好姿勢的定義GOOD POSTURE DEFINED
良好姿勢應該滿足一些條件，第一，它應該要有效率，也就是說讓你在一個特定的姿勢下不會痛且消耗最少的能量。第二，這個姿勢不應該阻止任何進行中的活動。第三，這個姿勢必須讓你可以快速而且容易的轉換到下一個相關的動作。Good posture should meet several conditions.First, it should be efficient, i.e. let you rest pain free in a particular position with a minimum of energy expenditure. Second, the posture should not inhibit any ongoing activities. Third, the posture must allow a quick and easy transition into the next relevant movement.
這些需求常常是相輔相成，但有時卻也是彼此對立，所以在某些情況某一種考量會優先考慮。These requirements tend to be mutually supportive but sometimes compete with each other such that one consideration takes greater priority in certain situations.
躺在背上是最有效率的姿勢，但對進行下個動作並不是好的姿勢。坐在椅子上讓你可以做多種活動，但並不是一個好的跑步預備姿勢。運動員蹲下的姿勢讓你可以準備毫無猶豫很快地去做各種方向的動作，但相對的就是沒有效率的姿勢，也就是說這需要花費比較多的能量去維持。因此你不會用蹲下這個姿勢排隊看電影或是在婚禮跟朋友講話。所以最理想的姿勢必須取決於各種考量，讓我們將每一個細項看得更仔細一些。Lying on your back is the most efficient posture but it is not very good for performing any ongoing work. Sitting in a chair allows various ongoing activities, but doesn’t make you well prepared for running. An athletic crouch position makes you well prepared to move quickly without hesitation in a variety of directions, but it is relatively inefficient – i.e. it takes energy to maintain. Thus, you would not use the crouch to wait in line at a movie or talk to friends at a wedding. So, the optimal posture depends on a variety of considerations. Let’s review each in a little more detail.
好的姿勢是有效率的 GOOD POSTURE IS EFFICIENT
我認為效率是好的身體使用的關鍵因素。有效率的使用身體意味著你做身體動作時使用最少的努力與負擔。就姿勢來說，我們基本上指的是對抗地心引力的力量來維持你身體的直立。I think efficiency is a key element of good body use. Efficient body use means the physical work you are doing is done with a minimum of effort or strain. In the case of posture, the work we are talking about is basically counteracting the force of gravity to hold yourself upright.
許多人已經精確的描述關於站姿或坐姿的生物力學。主要的想法是，各種不同的身體部位的骨頭，例如說腳、膝蓋、骨盆、胸腔和頭，需要彼此靠在一起。這樣會可以減少肌肉的運作，因為部分維持直立的工作會交給良好的骨頭排列所形成的擠壓的力量來完成。Many people have accurately described the biomechanics related to optimal standing or sitting. The main idea is that the various heavy bony segments of the body such as the feet, knees, pelvis, chest and head need to be stacked one over the other. This will tend to minimize the work of the muscles because part of the work of remaining vertical will be accomplished by the compressive forces of the well aligned skeleton.
但即使是堆排好的骨骼也是需要肌肉運作來維持直立。最大的問題是如何建立一個維持直立需要最少的力量的肌肉活化模式。But even a stacked skeleton requires muscular activity to stay upright. The big question is how to develop a pattern of muscular activation that maintains verticality with the least effort.
各種不同的專家嘗試將肌肉分成「姿勢上」的或是「主要在動作上」的分類，來決定這個肌肉需要被訓練或是啟動來維持好的姿勢。這個想法一部分是事實，但有一部分不太對，因為會導致人們太重視加強或是過度訓練某一兩塊姿勢上的肌肉，比如說多裂肌或是腹橫肌而忽略了身體的其他部分。Various experts have attempted to divide the muscles into “postural” and “prime mover” categories as a way to decide what muscles need to be developed or activated to have better posture. This approach has some truth to it, but it goes wrong when it leads people to place excessive attention on strengthening or activating one or two postural muscles like the multifidus or transversus abdominis, while neglecting the rest of the body.
任何的動作包括姿勢都是一個非常複雜且需要身體每一塊肌肉和諧的去運作完成。幾乎身體上超過500條肌肉都可以對脊椎造成直接或間接的機械性的力量。這些力量必須由全身每一條肌肉適當的收縮來互相的平衡與對抗。Any movement, posture included, is an infinitely complex symphony of harmonious cooperation from each and every muscle in the body. Almost all of the more than five hundred muscles in the body can exert a direct or indirect mechanical force on the spine. This force must be balanced and countered by appropriate contractions from each and every other muscle in the body.
有鑒於身體的複雜性我們必須質疑任何治療師如果只著重在某一兩條神奇的肌肉就可以去改變姿勢的能力。這就像是只靠選新的總統就可以改變一個國家一樣。應該整個系統都被改變，而不是只有多數中的其中一員。Given the complexity of the body, we should be very skeptical of the ability of any therapist to change posture by focusing on one or two magical muscles. That’s like trying to change the country by electing a new president. It’s the system that needs to change, not one player in the multitudes.
所以我們如何改變姿勢的系統？我喜歡有一個有趣的方式 – 想像（visualization)。我上一篇有提到，觀想一個動作，會同樣的刺激執行那些動作的神經元，是一個非常有效的方式來增進動作的技巧。就姿勢來說，可以想像一個或是多個下面這些意象：脊椎之間的空間拉長變大、脊椎像衣架竿子拉長、想像一條繩子從頭頂往上拉、想像頭像個氣球往上飄、想像有一個從尾椎往下拉的力量。越生動越真實你可以將這些意象使用的更好。So how do we change the posture system? One interesting approach that I like involves visualization. As I have discussed in previous posts, visualizing a certain movement activates the same neurons responsible for performance of the movement, and is a surprisingly effective way to improve movement skill. In the case of posture, such a visualization might involve one or more of the following images: the spine lengthens as the space between each vertebrae grows larger; the spine is like a curtain rod and lengthens out of itself; there is a string pulling the crown of the head upwards; the head is a balloon and is floating upwards; there is a weight on the tailbone pulling it downwards. The more vivd and real you can make these images the better.
如果你試著專注在這些意象幾分鐘，你會發現你沒有特別有意識的去改變你的脊椎，你也會立刻的感受到姿勢上的變化，希望你可以變得稍微高一點，而且是需要較少的力量來維持直立。（為了更明顯的感覺到只透過想像改變姿勢，你可以試著在站立的時候想像身體前側的皮膚往頭頂的方向流動而身體後側的皮膚則往下方流動。）我會在未來寫更多關於意象（ideokisesis)的文章，這是舞者純粹透過想像很好的動作治療。If you engage in this imagery for a few minutes, even without making any conscious effort to adjust the spine, you will notice some immediate changes in your posture – hopefully that you feel taller and require less energy to stay upright. (To feel an even more obvious change in posture as a result of pure visualization, try standing and imagining the skin on the front of the body flowing upwards and the skin on the back flowing down. If you are like me, you will soon feel yourself leaning backwards to the point of almost falling over.) I will discuss these ideas in more detail in a future post on Ideokinesis, which is an excellent movement therapy used primarily by dancers, and is based purely on using imagery.
好的姿勢可以保持不間斷的動作 GOOD POSTURE ALLOWS ONGOING MOVEMENT
如同我前一篇文章討論，姿勢並不是維持著不動，相反地，姿勢必須能夠完全不間斷的動作，比如說呼吸、望向地平線、打字、伸手去拿、享受一頓美食。通常這代表著你的頭必須可以自由的移動，你的肋骨必須是可以自由的呼吸，你可以自由的伸出手臂。如果你以一個會阻止你做任何這些動作的姿勢坐著，那你在做動作的時候將會有非常多的衝突或負擔而且浪費能量。As I discussed in the previous post, posture does not mean holding still. Instead, posture must fully allow any ongoing activities such as breathing, watching the horizon, typing, reaching, or enjoying a delicious beverage. Usually this means that the head must be free to move, the ribs must be free to breathe, and the arms must be free to reach. If you are sitting in a way that inhibits any of these activities, there will be conflict, strain and wasted energy when it’s time to move (which is almost all the time.)
事實上，如果你以一個會阻止你的頭、手、肋骨自由活動的姿勢坐著，你在開始動作之前就會造成一些問題。因為頭跟手臂的重要性還有呼吸動作的頻率，我們可以推論這些肌肉並沒有在做好自己的工作。In fact, sitting in a way that inhibits free motion of the head, hands and ribs will create problems even before the need to move arises. Because of the importance and frequency of head, arm and breathing movements, we can infer that the muscles that control them were not intended to be occupied by postural duties.
為了確認這些肌肉是否好好的執行自己的工作，你可以試著坐直的時候加大這些肌肉的使用來當作這個姿勢的動作練習。你可以試著想像你揮動你的手到最大的距離或是輕柔的畫圓時也可以同時維持你的脊椎拉長，試著想像呼吸空氣到肋骨的每個角落，試著想像轉頭的時候看見更多離你很近或是很遠，在你之上或是在你下面、後面的東西。To make sure these muscles are not doing postural duty, you can make exaggerated use of them while sitting tall as a postural exercise. You might try visualizing maintenance of a long spine while moving your arms through some full range of motion and gentle circles, breathing air into every corner of your ribs, and turning your head to look at as many objects you can see near and far, above, behind and below.
好的姿勢準備做出下一個動作 GOOD POSTURE PREPARES FOR THE NEXT MOVEMENT
另一個好的姿勢的標準（最容易忽略的）是要能夠容易且快速的轉換到下一個動作。當然下一個動作可能是非常不同的取決於不同時刻的需求。當你在足球場上等待著球或是你坐在電腦前面或者是你站在非洲大草原上有個肉食動物潛伏在遠方，這些動作需求都是不同的。因為我們的身體都已經進化設計成是為了要能夠確保生存，就很像在大草原上你隨時有可能遭受到身體的攻擊，讓我們從這個觀點來看動作的發展是為了做好準備。Another criterium for good posture (that is usually overlooked) is that it must allow an easy and quick transition into the next potential movement. Of course, the next movement might be very different depending on the needs of the moment. Your need to be prepared while waiting for the ball on a soccer field is different from your needs sitting at a computer, which is different from your needs while standing in the middle of an African savannah with predators lurking in the distance. Because our bodies were designed by evolution to ensure survival in a setting more like the savannah, where a physical attack might be on the way from any angle at any time, let’s explore readiness for action from this perspective.
這裡有一些小小的實驗。當你坐在這邊讀這篇文章的時候，想像一些原因你即將要快速且有力量的移動。或許有肉食動物在遠方水平線上，你需要眼觀近遠方來看他是否在靠近你。必要的話，你能夠隨時離開你的椅子逃離這個房間。現在檢視你的姿勢。你或許會坐在比較靠近椅子邊緣並且不會靠背，你的腳或許會在一個與地板緊密接觸的位子，你的骨盆也會在底部支持的位置主動的收縮，你的脊椎會在骨盆上方一個平衡的位子來準備往任何方向移動，你的頭跟手臂可以非常自由的活動。所以或許你的姿勢有一些進步，可能會更敏捷、迅速、穩定，或是也許你可能現在躲在一張桌子底下。Here’s a little experiment. As you sit there reading this, imagine that for some reason quick and powerful action might be required at any minute. Perhaps there are predators on the horizon and you need to scan near and far to see if one is approaching. Prepare to exit your chair and sprint out of the room if necessary.Now examine your posture. You are probably sitting nearer to the edge of your seat and not using the back support. Your feet are probably arranged with a solid connection to the floor. Your pelvis is actively engaged with its base of support on the chair. Your spine is well balanced over the pelvis and ready to move in any direction. Your head and arms are free to move. So maybe there have been some improvements to your posture -more athletic, ready, stable. Or maybe you are now hiding under the desk.
這裡主要的觀點是，或許也不是很完善，在強而有力的運動動作中以及每天簡單的動作中有著非常多比我們以前能想像還要有更多的協同合作。我們的身體是由很長的自然篩選的一個過程，因此我們應該預期姿勢是用來確保必須生存而且是舒適與健康的。換句話說，如果你察覺到你的周遭環境，並且身體也可以調整到能夠讓你容易的在各個方向有力的做動作，而且是不費力的，那麼你可能就有一個好的姿勢。The main point here, perhaps poorly made, is that there is more synergy between powerful athletic movements and everyday simple movements than we usually imagine. Our bodies are the result of a long process of natural selection – we should therefore expect that postures that are necessary to ensure survival are comfortable and healthy. Put another way, if you are aware of your environment and tuned into your base of support in a way that will allow easy and powerful motion in any direction with a minimum of preparation, then you will have probably have good posture.
姿勢不是維持著一個位置或是坐直而已。是一個運動的事件，充滿著動作以及準備做下一個動作。所以你動得越好，你就能夠更好的維持穩定與放鬆。Posture is not about holding a position and sitting up straight. It’s an athletic event filled with movement and preparation for the next movement. The better you move, the better you can just stay still and relax.