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This is continued from and is the final for this article. In Part 1, we mainly discussed how to calculate the total number of possible pairs for different situations.

In here, we will talk about:

  1. Difference between dependent & independent events (To calculate the possibility of events happened together)
  2. Our methodology to trace from outcomes to cause with python code.

Dependent & Independent Events

To learn the building block of probability, we can’t ignore the type of events. To find out the possibility of multiple events happened together. We need to identify the relationship between events.

In short, we can find out the…


During my data science learning journey, I found bayesian analysis interesting as it’s capable to logically predict possible cause by just observing the outcome. It’s sound abstract now however let me write on it in the future.

This article is not about bayesian analysis but on it’s building block, probability. While digging deep and relearning back all my high school and A-levels materials, I had new discovery and understanding.

It’s all gonna credited to Statistical Rethinking by Richard McElreath.


  1. How to do…

We all have experience stuck in jam commute to/from work. Thinking if I depart earlier or maybe later ;) else another route? Will it be better? it’s worst in Malaysia due to high car ownership (93%) according to The Star.

Luckily the photo below is not happening in Penang. At least not in my area xD

Photo by Iwona Castiello d’Antonio on Unsplash

This article hopefully can do a study and provide somehow intuitive solution by following a set of rules to reduce driving time using Google Maps.

The heart of data science is to gain insight.

(This is why I fascinated to data science.)

So let’s…

elvis lim

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