Science is about real world observations, so it seems that we should be able to identify a scientific concept about observations that is related to that of the religious concept of soul. Indeed, a number of years ago the highly regarded computer scientist Ed Fredkin and I independently [1,2] suggested that we should adopt a scientific definition of soul as the description of a person abstracted from his or her matter. The notion of “abstraction” is the key to understanding the relationship between scientific and religious concepts. In what way is a description of a person different from the person? In addition to addressing this interesting question in this paper, I have a particular point that I feel is important to emphasize which is important for science generally and essential to the concept of a religious soul. This is the importance of each individual, i.e. that individual uniqueness is important to scientific discourse. Significantly, individual uniqueness is not generally an important part of discussions in the conventional scientific approaches of psychology, brain science and artificial intelligence.