Europeans did not invent the concept of race as we know it, because we all have a different ideas of difference. It is innate to have inner and outer groups. Class, tribe, nation, family, clan are all ways present even in other ape species. What you are saying is, the concepts you have (stereotypes), are common. These are academic or media stereotypes. They are often motivated to impose common values for the interest of a particular group. Most of us have different histories and in and out groups are different for everyone. The Chinese have the story of god and his oven. He makes three batches of people. The first come out too dark and burnt. They are thrown away. The second come out white and under done. They are thrown away. On his third attempt the come out golden brown, the Chinese people the perfect and only non barbarian people.
You mention Aryans in India, but European farmers had a similar effect on indigenous populations. Just as Mongoloid peoples had on Aboriginal populations in South East Asia and the Malay Archipelago. Around 543 AD European populations were driven out of Central Asia after a volcanic eruption. Anyone who studies Africa would know that herders (generally tall thin people) migrated south and conquered and subjected forest dwellers and agriculturalists. Only colonial intervention stopped this process by drawing up borders.
Every group on history from the Hebrews and before enslaved and subjugated others. Even the so called Greek Democracy was based on inferior slaves who had no representation (plebs). Even modern systems like communism have the party and the population. They have two worlds and aim to create an altered state of conciousness where their Utopian world will lie. It always fails.
You are right about education. This comes to the last area of culture. Advancement and backwardness are measured by how one in-calculates the dominant culture. If you are born in Ireland and do not have proficiency in that language many jobs are denied you. It is why development in Africa fails because different cultural values and a misinterpretation of them. In Asia people have been able to insert their cultural values into Capitalism to make a great success of development. Whatever you do do not let others put you down. Be resourceful and flexible and you will find a way around difficulties. The US has many Black and Hispanic communities have overcome their difficulties. Some have extra after hours schools. Indians seem to fit in everywhere. They often use paid coaching allowing their children to cheat the system like rich people do with private schools.
Whether you are in or out depends on socialisation and being reassessed in others eyes. Being White is no advantage over being of colour. Whites feel just as much outsiders than others with then exception that they feel part of the dominant community. However, dominant communities change around the world. In the world of music and some disadvantaged communities have broken through glass ceilings. Nothing is achieved without effort and self sacrifice especially for lower social groups and classes. Culture is key.